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Great post and right to the point. Greetings, I do believe your website might be having browser compatibility problems. Moreover, it furthers research at the regional level and helps to create exchange and diffusion spaces. Thus, among other reports, there are articles awarded in the contest with academic coordination in charge of the Argentine Cinematheque and Image Archive CINAIN , whose launch is also our pride.
Mercosur Audiovisual Magazine is not only a way what we do, but also a way of coming closer, getting to know and enriching each other in the everyday exchange of perspectives and viewpoints; another step in the process of integration of the cinematographic and audiovisual industries of the region. Because getting integrated, far from sharing an only standpoint, means being able to reflect all the voices, all the standpoints.
That is the path we are betting on today. Under the resolution that creates it, RECAM is given the aim of advancing towards the integration process of the cinematographic and audiovisual industries taking into account their two aspects —cultural and economic,— so as to reinforce the integration and regional identity process.
In order to achieve their goals, the Authorities of each country put forward, design and agree on their Work Programs, which are aimed at facilitating the circulation of their own contents, implementing policies for the defense of diversity and cultural identity, and creating the conditions to improve the value chain and their access to the market.
Estate by previous Since its beginning, the Audiovisual has been prioritized, and the current ones have kept the firm conviction that the protection of the Heritage, its preservation and diffusion constitute an invaluable tool when it comes to strengthening the identity, recovering common stories and recognizing ourselves in the differences to value ourselves as a region.
In , RECAM started the implementation of the Audiovisual Mercosur Program, which entails cooperation between Mercosur and the European Union, and it had the historic opportunity of including the Audiovisual Heritage in one of its cores. The activities consisted in developing a Regional Strategic Plan, designing a Database and creating a Diffusion Pack with restored materials in the framework of the Program.
We are referring to the First Selection of Audiovisual Pieces of Mercosur Integrating Looks with over minutes of digitalized materials, some of which are restored, where the selection of pieces was made by every country and pieces of great value for the regional identity can be found.
It also constitutes a way of recognizing people as well as governmental and private entities which devote efforts towards the protection, preservation and diffusion of the heritage. This date acquired special 6. A spreading Spot with images of the restored and digitalized materials was presented as a reminder of this day.
The activities have also received support from different Mercosur entities, thereby giving institutional and comprehensive reinforcement to the celebration. This first edition of the Audiovisual Mercosur Magazine focusing on Estate like the Audiovisual a clear sign of the understanding between countries regarding the appreciation of national and collective memory, the strengthening of capacities, the promotion of studies in the field and the generation of work opportunities of joint and common growth.
As is proposed in the article of the Viewpoints section, the challenge is to work considering and looking at the future without disregarding the past. We hope you will enjoy this publication, which was produced thanks to the invaluable contribution of entities and professionals.
PartII,whichconsists of several sections, contains a ride to actions, spaces, looks and memories with assessments on current affairs. In both parts, the edition entailed the selection of some articles, so we could not include all the contributions received, but we hope that this will be a diffusion and debate tool that brings about the necessary constructive reflections. You are invited to send us your feedback to revista recam. We celebrate the choice of a topic of vital importance for the regional development of the management of pictures in motion, as is the Audiovisual Heritage.
This publication implies a space for common reflection for our countries, where issues related to audiovisual preservation from different perspectives can be addressed, with a collaborative spirit and with the intention of sharing and knowing research experiences, as well as shared projects to cherish our audiovisual heritage. In this respect, and in accordance with the strategic line regarding public policies implemented by audiovisual authorities of Mercosur member countries, in my capacity as Academic Coordinator of the RECAM Magazine, on behalf of the Argentine Cinematheque and Archive of the National Image CINAIN , we have proposed not to limit the call for articles to papers or academic works on research advances.
Both types of projects are indivisible parts of the tasks of the agents and institutions that preserve the Audiovisual Heritage and we believe their promotion will benefit the development of the field at the regional level. With the intention of going beyond traditional lines of thinking that place cinema on a superior position within the wide field of Audiovisual Heritage, we have given special consideration to prospective research and actions whose goal investigates the diversity of audiovisual forms including cinema, TV, video, video installations and video online.
On the other hand, in order to create equal opportunities and guarantee the possibility of carrying out the projects, we have taken into account research on less developed videocinematography topics and management projects whose reasonableness criteria are. Her activity includes work at different archives and universities in the US and Latin America, and consultancy work for different projects concerning audiovisual collections. Autora de varias publicaciones, entre ellas Cinembargo Colombia.
Pamela Vizner An expert in the care, management and handling of media-related collections, including film and digital material. She has worked for numerous cultural institutions and is currently teaching Digital Preservation at the University of Chile. Pamela is an associate director at Second Run Media Preservation, an archive consulting company, and also an associate researcher at Media Matters for the project entitled Filmic. She holds a B. Pamela ha trabajado con una variedad de organizaciones culturales a nivel internacional.
APEX is a sustainable education model that promotes international cooperation and communication in relation to aspects concerning the preservation of audiovisual media such as films, videos and digital material.
This instance —which will imply working directly with audiovisual collections as well as the participation of professionals, students, researchers and the general public— will be an opportunity for a cross-disciplinary exchange of practices, knowledge, and solutions to problems in common. From its beginnings in , different editions of APEX have taken place in different Latin American countries - Colombia , Uruguay , Argentina and , and Chile This tenth anniversary brings along the chance to assess the results reached and to plan for future cooperation aimed at strengthening the professional bonds created so far.
A final document is expected to be the outcome of the symposium —which will include panels, round tables and audiovisual exhibits— with the possibility of applying it as a framework to guide audiovisual heritage management activities within the region in the future. The results of all dialogs and work done at the event will be compiled in a virtual publication that will include the presentations made by participants, as well as summaries of the activities carried out by work-groups, and an assessment of challenges and projects for the future.
The publication will serve both as a report and as a referential and working tool for the archives that have been and will be part of APEX. Keywords: Exchange, education, collaboration, audiovisual. APEX is a sustainable educational model that promotes international collaboration and academic dialogue in order to safeguard audiovisual media such as film, videos and digital materials. It is an opportunity for cross-exchange of practices, knowledge and solutions to common problems by working directly with audiovisual collections, with the involvement of professionals, students, researchers and the general public.
The tenth anniversary is an opportunity to assess obtained results and plan future collaborations that aim at strengthening the professional networks that have been formed to this date. The symposium will include panels, round tables and screenings, and expects to issue a document that will be useful as a guideline Results from the different dialogues and roundtables will be gathered in a virtual publication that will include lectures from attendants, summaries of the roundtables, reports on challenges and future projects.
This publication will constitute archival memory as well as a reference tool for the archives that were and will be part of APEX. The project resonated for Latin American countries where it has since taken root. The second edition of the program was carried out in at the Museum of Cinema of Buenos Aires, in order to coincide with the visit of international archivists that attended the conference of the International Federation of Film Archives FIAF , held in this city.
Between and , the program was also imparted in Colombia, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. APEX has proven to be a successful model for management and selfgovernance for Latin American countries. Yet in , it also took place in Cartagena, Spain. The program was established with the aim of enabling productive communication at an international level between audiovisual archivists, administrators, educators and students through shared, hands-on work. Its crosscollaboration spirit and non-hierarchical dialogue has been maintained throughout the different editions, which has enabled working with very diverse collections and team members with different backgrounds.
This has strengthened the diversity of the program and has expanded its scope beyond the purely institutional collections, broadening the definitions. APEX has not only encouraged international dialogue, but also local dialogues, since public organizations play a guiding and governing role. Broadening the range of dialogue and inclusion has allowed diversifying the representation of memory, generating conversations on sustainability and resources, and promoting new stages for the use of the audiovisual heritage.
In its work with different institutions and archives, APEX and its collaborators have had the chance to include and work on handling and safeguarding of analogue film materials on nitrate, acetate and polyester, small formats 8mm, Super 8, 9. The collections APEX has worked with are versatile and include newsreels and television footage, creative and artistic productions, as well as new languages and forms of expression.
This still includes the creative fields, introducing the value of archival materials and the great support it provides to film production and artistic creation. Also, local partners have contributed, usually by providing goods, services or supplies for the development of activities during the program.
The costs of the program are covered with funds received from individual contributions and the support provided by host institutions. It is expected that participating archives somehow contribute, either with direct funding of supplies and resources or in-kind support. In previous versions, our associated parties have managed to offer working spaces, promote special events and some have even obtained partial support to cover costs such as accommodation, food and snacks, or archival supplies.
The organization of the activities is led by students of the MIAP program who are advised by a teacher or several teachers of the program. In addition, former MIAP students also participate as mentors. This constitutes a unique model where the objective is not only working towards safeguarding audiovisual heritage, but also encouraging leadership.
As we already mentioned, when organizing the event, MIAP seeks to promote professional development for students. As such, planning with the archive or institutions that will be visited is carried out by a small committee that gathers students, faculty advisors, mentors and local organizers. The flexibility of the program allows the suggestions of the host organizations to include other activities related to preservation.
In the execution of each edition, APEX has included visits to archives, museums and restoration facilities, workshops, academic conferences and audiovisual exhibitions. In general, every edition concludes with an event that allows working groups to share results and engage in conversations related to topics such as preventive conservation, the creation of digitization stations, preservation of digital files, as well as discussing future plans for cooperation.
The APEX editions are developed with four main focus areas : to create international, inter-regional and local dialogue and collaboration; to foster collaboration in order to solve common problems in the administration of audiovisual collections; to provide education around the importance of the audiovisual heritage; and to educate and encourage leadership in the professional area.
The exchange as such lasts two full weeks; activities may be developed in more than one geographical site. The work is performed with two or more local organizations, which is a fundamental requirement of the program, since it ensures inter-institutional dialogue at the local level. The group of attendants from countries outside the host country has included 12 to 20 people divided into working groups. Each group works with one institution or local organization, or in two or more specific projects within a same organization.
Local participants are generally employees, archivists, members of the participating institutions and volunteers. Sometimes, professionals and enthusiasts have also joined from neighboring countries. The APEX team makes a preliminary work and acquires supplies donated by local manufacturing companies to provide materials such as containers or canisters, film cement or splicing tape, perforated tape and others, according to wish lists prepared by the hosts.
It also accepts the collaboration of donors to provide equipment that may be difficult to get or is expensive for hosts to provide. It is worth noting that language has never been an obstacle to develop the project since we have always have bilingual participants Latin American students, mentors and hosts that offer their skills to enable communication; these people are also experts in the areas addressed and thus can. APEX encourages and enables these bonds, but does not always play the leading role in their execution.
Within those collaborations, it is important to mention the increased presence of members of the community of APEX Latin America in professional associations, such as. Those connections between different archiving communities have resulted in subsequent activities, such as collaboration projects on preservation and digitization, collaborative presentations Association of Moving Images Archivist AMIA 3 with an outstanding involvement in the education, diversity and international outreach committees.
The communication network has been successful at suggesting positive changes to institutions, such as the International Federation of Film. Every edition of APEX has had specific purposes that adjust to the needs and interests of archives and host institutions. This allows us to be efficient and speedy when executing ambitious objectives. In addition, a conference about digital preservation was organized at the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, and a round table. These materials were located in facilities of Katina Productions in SoHo since the 80s.
Filmed between and , the series has 64 episodes that deal with ethnographic topics, gathering knowledge, wisdoms and traditions from the Afro-descendant and indigenous heritage and culture. The Catholic University of Uruguay participated in the program with Julieta. This new side of the program suggested an interesting interaction between the archive, its users and the communities. This recognizes heritage as a living entity, which undergoes constant transformation and reinterpretation.
During this edition of APEX, the training on professional leadership was implemented through the organization of open workshops for the public on preservation of films, video and digital media taught by the students of the program.
The activities were concluded with a round table where participants shared the work performed during the visit. For participants, this activity was really positive since it enabled them to know and discuss the work performed by each team, something that could not be done during the two weeks as work was carried.
In addition, given that it is a small city and many cultural organizations were participating, the round table paved the way for an internal collaboration network called Mesa Interinstitucional de Archivos Interinstitutional Table of Archives that currently allows its members accessing the digitization of film and magnetic material thanks to the creation of a laboratory for common use.
This time, the work with collections focused onmovie formats of 35mm, in both acetate and nitrate, the latter considered of great interest due to its age and fragility, and for its special conservation issues. The opportunity offered by the Museum when providing its nitrate collections was invaluable for participants, becoming a unique educational experience. This video format is the oldest one and the work performed with this collection was also unique.
Thanks to the participation of expert Jim Lindner, who joined the team as a volunteer, we performed an assessment on the collection, in addition to designing a cleaning machine for this format, work that was carried out together with the team of engineers of the station Canal 7. The machine has been in operation since mid Uruguayan colleagues that had participated in the program during the previous year also attended this seminar.
In this sense, every APEX has incorporated participants and prior networks, building and growing on its own. It is The work focused on film collections in small formats 8mm, S8mm and 9. The work at the Library was centered on the inspection and repair of films, as well as on the design and test of a telecine prototype whose purpose was to provide a digitization alternative purely focused on access, given that the institution does not have a film scanner.
The closing seminar did not only allow demonstrating the results of the work performed, but also suggested topics and interesting discussions in connection to the responsibility of taking care of heritage, the impact of digitization, the safeguard of digital systems and the importance of the diversity of voices for the creation and protection of memory.
Colleagues from Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia, with whom we share a professional. On this opportunity, a community archiving workshop was held for the first time; it was an event that coincided with the celebration of the Chilean Cultural Heritage Day. During this workshop, work was carried out on the collection of the well-known Chilean documentarist, Pablo Salas.
The event was geared toward the general public, with the aim of engaging local communities with audiovisual collections, through the inspection and collaborative cataloging of audiovisual materials8. Future Activities In , the program will celebrate its 10th anniversary since its first edition. In addition to the usual activities of the program, we plan to begin the APEX exchange with a summit to celebrate the ten years of collaborations.
This event is aimed at members of the countries two member and two associated members of Mercosur that have participated in APEX. The purpose of this summit is presenting projects that each archive has been able to consolidate thanks to APEX, assessing the achievements of the purposes suggested in every visit and designing a At the same time, it will be an opportunity to encourage debate on the state of art of the profession in each of our countries and on our standing and visibility as archivists of moving images in the region.
Likewise, we will address subjects like the current state of facilities and equipment of the different participating archives and institutions, as well as issues related to the maintenance of analog material, digitization and digital preservation. The symposium will allow the archival community to shape working guidelines that are cohesive with the spirit of collaboration and exchange of APEX to.
The biggest management project we will work on seeks to ensure the presence of our colleagues so that they can present, participate and plan with us. This particular project is oriented towards the financing of expenses related with the event and ensuring the presence of our colleagues from countries affiliated to Mercosur and other associated countries. Kamani seeks to maximize the possibilities provided by the Internet and to contribute with virtual resources such as publications, apps, virtual tools, guidelines and similar issues.
It also. The project operates as a website with different panels introducing the project, organizing resources, publishing calls for conferences, workshops, seminars and other type of symposiums, and regularly publishing calls for awards and funds, therefore encouraging collaboration between archivists, artists, programmers, film curators, specialists in audiovisual heritage.
The project will be jointly managed, with a general moderation, and it will be accessed through a subscription to an e-mail account. The different areas will be managed by two participants who will take turns and accept to comply with a series of operating guidelines established by mutual agreement. The management will be divided into turns of four months each, allowing flexibility in the involvement. Specific n Support the programming of an assessment.
Development of the Management Project As we have already explained, the project will be carried out at the same time as the APEX edition. The event will be held in two days and shall include panels for the introduction of projects carried out within the APEX framework, round tables to assess results and plan future work, round tables to discuss the needs of input and new.
It will be concluded with the curated screeningof films and moving images that show works rescued thanks to the collaborations with APEX. During the project, the Kamani project will be introduced and the relevant auditors will be named for the first stage of its operation. Conclusions After ten years since the implementation of the APEX program, the presence in Latin America has become more important and the effects of its collaboration are now tangible.
The celebration. This will include the scheduling of panels, round tables and other activities related to the symposium. The ad hoc committee will contribute to the organization of panels, round tables and similar activities, as well as the coordination of the moving images and film curatorship. The organization of this part of the program started in September with a survey. The archives and institutions that have already participated in APEX must confirm their attendance until April The institutions must seek funds to pay expenses that the program cannot cover.
The distribution of available funds will be made aiming at ensuring the participation of at least one member of each invited country to allow a proper representation. Special cases of organizations with few resources or receiving temporary funds shall be considered. The logistic organization related to hotels, transportation within the city of the summit and Although Kamani will be officially launched during the summit, its virtual structure will be used to show previews about the organization and information about the summit, also posting it in the APEX website and social media.
The ad hoc committee will be selected based on the experience the participating members in APEX Latin America have inpublications. A schedule will be established to deliver articles, for editing processes, diagramming and publication, aiming at publication in November Collaborations will be based in the subjects of the summit and must include the feedback provided in that opportunity.
The ad hoc committee will determine the editorial guidelines, such as the extent, presentation methodology, quotes and images. A designer will be hired to organize the publication, but the final presentation will be virtual and posted both in the APEX NYU site, Kamani, as well as in websites of archives and participating institutions that desire to post it.
Abstract A biography of Chico Moreira , which focuses on his professional activity with special mention of his skill that turned him into the Brazilian who restored the larges number of films in that country, mainly between the years and Key Words: film, education, restoration. He was certainly not the first Brazilian to work in that area, but he has in his curriculum the greatest amount of recovered films in the history of Brazilian cinema. Deceased in January , Chico Moreira became interested at a young age in film recovery, both as a viewer and as a performer of the seventh art.
He combined the interest and study in photography with cinephilia, research on image and film preservation. All these were greatly useful for his work in restoration. We intend to know how he built a career as a restorer.
Another, not less important, purpose is to try encouraging young students to work in the area of audiovisual preservation and restoration, strengthening the idea of always combing the technical, practical and film repertoire.
Finally, remember that the history of films is not only constituted by the works and its authors, but also by the technical crew that creatively provides assistance to build this heritage. The fulllength films he restored are mainly known thanks to the collaboration with the CPCB Center of Brazilian Cinema Researchers and other performers -such as Nelson Pereira dos Santos, whose work was totally recovered by Chico Moreira.
In connection to the production of restored films, it is Conclusions: Chico Moreira left a great gap in connection to film restoration in Brazil. The training of new restorers may be postponed and they must never lose sight of the essence of this training based on multiple skills. Chico Moreira -as he was known- complaint a lot about the lack of a preservation policies in Brazil aiming at protecting our audiovisual heritage. The actions for film restoration, mainly those carried out between and , when Chico Moreira was responsible for the Area of Original Film Recovery in the old Labo Cine and executed most of those works, was due to the determination and merit of the people who prepared projects for this area and claimed support through incentive laws.
According to the restorer, there was never an orienting policy for the safeguard of the Brazilian cinematographic memory. The first one was given to the author of this article, Cezar Migliorin and Consuelo Lins in , and was focused on his training in production. In addition, the article also includes information gathered from different books and websites. You want to kill yourself. Interview ]. Apart from this working capacity throughout his last 16 years of life, Chico Moreira combined knowledge and creativity, and was able to develop an innovative technical process in the recovery of those films.
Our hypothesis is that Chico Moreira joined multiple skills, from his passion in cinema to his practical knowledge to build machines adapted to copy reduced films. However, his skills were not just those characteristics: Moreira had a solid training on film photography and production, did internships in different cinematheques, the best ones being Staatliches Filmarchiv in East Germany, UCLA Film and Television Archives, and the French Cinematheque.
If the preservation scenario in Brazil was always adverse, how could Chico Moreira take off in this area? What were the paths he had to open? How was he trained? Was he self-educated? These questions are important to understand the journey of the most prolific film restorer we have until this day.
It is extremely necessary to correct this mistake in the cinema historiography, which should also consider its technical staff biographies and stories: many of them have an active creative involvement in the construction of pieces. Chico Moreira did not leave any document with the title of the films he worked in as a producer or restorer, this means that the study is very valuable, both to clarify the interested young people how he was professionally trained, which includes so many aspects, and to eliminate some mistakes in the area of preservation and restoration.
He was raised by his two great-. He studied in many schools of the South area of the city and his greatest hobby was attending the neighborhood cinemas during the afternoon. His favorite filmmaker was Orson Welles, who he considered a unique genius. He was also interested on photography at a young age: in an interview in , Chico says that since he was 8 or 9, he already knew how to process pictures.
His first job was in Estudio Mafra, known for the photographies taken for album covers during. Chico Moreira, in the foreground on the left, on the edge of Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro, during the photography course. Nancy Castro Nunes Collection.
Studies in the UFF and his taste for film production editing At the beginning of the 70s, Chico Moreira begun his university studies in Law. Shortly after, he started studying Chemistry, possibly due to his interest in acquiring more knowledge in the photographic process. During the second semester of , he begun studying Social Communication, major in Cinema; and graduated also in Advertising and Journalism, concluding his studies in With the latter, he made his first work as camera assistant in the movie Universidade Fluminense During the time he was a university student, Chico.
It took almost three years to make the movie given that most of the images were archive material. Chico Moreira was responsible for the production editing and direction assistance of Silvio Tendler, as well as for the image exploration and processing. The research paved the way for his work in film preservation. His previous experience in photography, cinephilia, production and image research were combined towards a great career in this area. For 20 years, he remained in charge of the management and organization of the titles, records, permanent review of the heritage, assignment of material and customer service heritage owners, researchers, students, etc.
Moreira was usually in charge of the copies in the laboratory and never stopped working in production, image research he became a consultant for many heritages and film conclusions. You could work really seriously there. Chico shared knowledge on the photographic techniques with Janice and, mainly, understood the need to adapt equipment to duplicate the shrunken material.
Department of Original Film Restoration of Labo Cine of Brazil In , Chico Moreira left the MAM after some years of misunderstandings with the director of the Museum, Maria Regina Nascimento Brito, on the possible dismantling of the Cinematheque aimed at increasing the technical reser ve of plastic arts of the institution.
Many of the heritage material were transferred to other warehouses and, dissatisfied with this situation, he left the MAM. In the selection of restored films, there were many times Chico did not only knew their authors and understood the physical condition of the work, but was also aware of the production context and the historical importance of the film.
Thanks to his research and preservation work, Chico could assist in the search of other materials that could help for the restoration process, mentioning archives were they could find copies in good conditions to be.
He then met His passion for photography enabled him working in the laboratory in every step of the processing and copying of the restored components. He controlled the sensitometry of films, pH of the processing liquids and everything related to the chemical part of the restoration -mainly, since not all frames showed the same definition; many times the film had to be printed again and processed with a different density to sharpen colors and contrast.
We need to specially point out the work of Nelson Pereira dos Santos, which was fully restored. Chico supervised all the stages of the estoration, from the project to the exhibition. He was never a purist in film recovery. In the case of Aviso aos navegantes , for instance, he rebuilt a fragment of a dialogue with professional dubbing actors such as, w narrative; however, he had the habit of talking and calling photographers when they were alive and together they gave light to the film, in a great celebration and recollection of the Brazilian cinema.
He left a great collection of cameras and accessories from different brands and times. Among his belongings, he left a library of strange books about cinema, photography, preservation and restoration, apart from different collections of specialized magazines. In his answer delivered on 6 April , he wrote:. Here I go for the next 40 years with the society. Thanks and regards. Chico was always up to date on everything related to equipment, preservation and film restoration.
He was a stubborn reader of many publications. Apart from his work, his greatest legacy was leaving the young people passionate for cinema, who are also interested in preservation and film restoration, with the certainty that passion and love for cinema are not enough: it is about a combination of skills that combine both the observant viewer and the researcher and technician who know the different stages of filmmaking. Film catalogues.
Films produced by the cinema students of the UFF. Belo Horizonte: June LUNA, Rafael. MAM Cinematheque, Video Filmography A hora da estrela. Direction: Suzana Amaral. Direction: Adhemar Gonzaga. Direction: Silvio Tendler. Aviso aos navegantes. Direction: Watson Macedo.
Direction, Stanley Donen, Gene Kelly. Cabra marcado para morrer. Direction: Eduardo Coutinho. Menino de engenho. Direction: Walter Lima Junior. O homem do Sputnik. Direction: Carlos Manga. Tudo azul. Direction: Moacyr Fenelon. Universidade Fluminense. She holds B. She has been coordinator for national and international heritage digitalization projects. Her field of research is amateur and family filmmaking. Abstract This article provides thoughts on the importance of the familiar and amateur films to preserve the audiovisual heritage.
We intend to evidence the relevance of research, conservation and dissemination of private images of the everyday life, based on the experience of the project Cine Casero, to safeguard intangible cultural practices and the recovery of the collective memory. The project Cine Casero is a research and development proposal aimed at disseminating the audiovisual heritage and is based on education as a tool for preservation.
The hypothesis of this article considers that the audiovisual heritage, as a constituent component of the cultural identity of a community, may turn into a privileged vehicle for education. Also, given that audiovisuals is a type of cultural asset produced by the action of a specific technology, the modification this heritage has undergone is analyzed based on the arrival of the digital image and how it affected its conservation and access.
This thought may help us consider strategies to preserve future heritage; images we produce every day and that we will leave as a testimony for future generations. Cine Casero Uruguayan project : heritage, education, audiovisual technology This article provides thoughts on the importance of the familiar and amateur films to preserve the audiovisual heritage. We intend to evidence the relevance of research, conservation and dissemination of private images of the everyday life, based on the experience of the project Cine Casero, to safeguard intangible cultural practices and the recovery of the collective memory.
This aims at discovering the specific type of intangible heritage included in domestic audiovisual records from the past and thinking about the advantages of the actions related to the didactics of heritage, specifically with the concept of an educating city Prats and Santacana, The theoretical justification of this project is grounded on concepts of cultural, educational and technological heritage. The hypothesis of this article considers that the audiovisual heritage, as a constituent component of the cultural identity of a community,.
Analogical and photochemical audiovisual technologies did not only produce specific audiovisual products, but also ways of being and staying in the world, which differ from the ones we see today in the digital context. Audiovisual preservation and education 1. Description of the project Cine Casero The project suggests researching and identifying, on the one hand, amateur records and family films, and on the other, training their owners or holders on the basic handling and preservation of these.
Domestic audiovisual records are part of a category that is difficult to delineate given that it is formed by a heterogeneous group of audiovisual materials that includes family films per se, as well as educational and experimental films, homemade documentary films, travel journals, informative fragments, among others. This is based on education as a key tool for preservation, understanding that the members of the community may become guardians and developers of their own heritage.
The project is developed with workshops that invite participants to submit their family films or old records about their cities and towns. The activity is divided into two stages: first, movies are inspected considering their physical status and content; then, there is a public projection, organized by the workshop participants, who show the films they recovered to the community.
The main objective of the inspection and conservation tasks is to promote healthy practices for materials, but that easy to implement at a domestic level. Then, during the workshop, participants learn to manufacture containers to keep materials made out of input available in local businesses, packets of silica gel used to absorb moisture, preparation of call sheets to avoid the continuous handling of the originals, and they also share useful tips.
A broader public is invited to the projection, where the schedule selected by the participants is shown. During the projection, people are invited to make. Reference conceptual framework The project is offered as a development and research activity of the audiovisual heritage t h ro u g h t h e re cov e r y o f f a m i ly f i l m s.
Family films, given that they capture moments of the private life, are constituted through their study in historic-cultural documents that provide an original point of view for social research. Their importance lays in their great anthropological, historical, social value, as well as in the film quality in some cases.
Therefore, they are part of the intangible heritage of a community. The images included in family films are part of a heritage that is scattered and needs gathering and preservation, following specific strategies and criteria. On one side, since it is an object of study of different disciplines such as aesthetics, archeology, history, architecture, and on the other side, because it is a concept that strongly depends on social, political, ideological changes and sensibility of a given moment in time.
Appreciation and selection processes are applied to define what heritage means, and they greatly depend on what a community appreciates. It is not just the isolated monument that needs protection, but also the urban and scenic environment around it; This is a more comprehensive idea on heritage that offers a standpoint that diminishes the importance of objects and paves the way for the construction of the concept of intangible cultural heritage established in the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage UNESCO, The traditional classification understands that heritage may be cultural, natural, movable, immovable, tangible or intangible.
This classification enabled the development of specific disciplines to approach each of the types of specific goods or practices, artificially breaking the pattern that connects objects to their representations and the assigned meanings, around which the identity of a community is forged.
In this sense, audiovisual records are the thread of said pattern: they keep objects and meanings united through representation. Intangible is that included in images, the objects represented in them. Let us consider the city, one of the most commonly represented objects in family films and amateur records.
Images of the city in the past reconstitute the union of the territory with the meaning currently provided to that space: filming the construction of a signature building, a piece of land where there used to be a park and now holds a mall, a touristic beach that used to be occupied by bullock carts, trucks and artisanal fishermen.
UNESCO, These images are materially embodied and need to be preserved and safeguarded from the passing of time and the fragility of the support, but mainly from forgetfulness. Therefore, Cine Casero is available as a project that aims at promoting access to those materials. This principle, clearly arguable by the cinema as an artwork, losses its argument strength when the object of heritage is formed by amateur records of everyday life.
It was not until the seventies that these records gained value. Therefore, although some cinematographic experiences or others from the field of art worked based on reusing family and amateur images, it is with the appearance of television series that they acquire visibility .
The amateur audiovisual records are a product of the action of ordinary people whom, driven by. This distance between audiovisual-work and audiovisual-record caused that for many decades the community of archivists underestimated the latter and considered it a minor object —in connection to heritage-. Logically, this is a false opposition between cultural products of a diverse nature that need also different conservation strategies and studying methods.
Today, different organizations are focused on the promotion of the audiovisual heritage to provide answers to the need to conserve the audiovisual memory of the population and not just of the Cinema. The project Cine Casero is grounded on the paradigm shift from conservation to preservation.
Apart from the encouragement of conservation practices for prevention, preservation implies researching about the materials, intellectual control on content and bringing them into circulation. This is, making them available to be appreciated. Without their use, availability or spreading of these images, the activity of custody of the audiovisual heritage is limited to conservation. The preservation scope takes the film work out of the center as an object of custody and encourages the share of images and their circulation.
Access is the key concept. It is about tearing down the walls of the institution to improve the bond with the citizens. Family and amateur films are shown. Education Relationship between heritage and education is mutually beneficial. Conservation and promotion of cultural heritage may be benefitted, as already explained, from research and study.
This suggestion may be summarized as follows: educate to know, know to value, value to care. However, education needs strategies to help it overcome the deep crisis it is immersed in. School is no longer a key place to socialize. According to anthropology, socializing is talking between generations, this is, the way knowledge is transmitted from one generation to another, the memory of the old to the new generations.
The city has become this new space. This implies accepting that in the knowledge society there are others way to know, other kinds of knowledge and rationality, and that education must be understood as the place where knowledge intersects.
Currently, the city is the privileged stage where this intersection of knowledge takes place. Symbolic and communication elements that constitute it and us as inhabitants of this community become visible. Paulo Freire understands that literacy is not aimed at people learning to read, but learning to write their own story. In family films and amateur records, the city is the most used location. The project Cine Casero is justified by means of this.
Revealing those records that are part of a city, which has been modified, transformed both physically and symbolically, to enable conversation between generations. The urban framework then becomes an extraordinary opportunity for education. Heritage is an instrument the city has to educate its citizens in some values considered important.
But it is the whole city who educates. It is part of the stimulus that urban researches have gained, understanding that in the contemporary society, life takes place in the cities. The cities hold the heritage, as it was stated, subject to be used as a teaching tool. The pedagogy of heritage encourages actions that aim at making them visible, boosting them and, mainly, giving value to heritage. Their activities go beyond the traditional restoration of cultural assets and exhibitions at museums, given that they develop pedagogical strategies to spread the cultural heritage by living and experiencing it Prats, The model based on the disclosure of information of the school has been evidenced as inefficient.
A new model based on living and experiencing knowledge will boost a space for communication, which fits better with the ways the society communicated these days. Therefore, project Cine Casero offers some stages such as workshops and community exhibition that strongly aim at living and experiencing the heritage represented in films, and that encourage the emotional bond.
The main innovation of the format was the size reduction and, therefore, its cost. These changes aimed at seducing non-professional users, making the technical processes easier. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the industry of the audiovisual technology started walking towards the mass society. The user is not concerned about the processes and knowledge, but also, losses control: the race towards automatism starts.
Kodak established something similar to a light camera, easy to handle and at a low cost; it established the basis for a new relationship between audiovisual technology and subjects. Only determinist views separate them from the standpoint of their definitions. This relationship must overcome any dual view from the beginning. This interaction may be asymmetric over time. Colina, Instead, with the outbreak of the digital technology, the audiovisual record brought about consequences that carry deep changes in the way of producing and consuming images.
I will point out some of the technological changes that may shed light on the research about family films. With the disappearance of supports, the experience of the viewers also disappeared. The projection conditions of the cinema in photochemical support —in family or at a room exclusively used for this purpose- find us in the twenty first century involved in a situation where watching movies does no longer imply watching them in technical conditions and in specific situations.
Gain and loss at the same time, states La Ferla We gained freedom and ubiquity with computers, but the experience of a collective view of the celluloid projection disappeared. Another consequence of the technological change, unavoidable when we analyze the problems of audiovisual preservation, is the loss of autonomy of subjects who produce images. As digital images appear as a monopoly, the use of a software to recognize and decide the data that constitute the image becomes essential.
Therefore, we lose as users and producers the freedom offered to us by the popularization of the media accessible to all. After a few years of experience with digital images, we have already evidenced that stability times are short and availability does not mean permanence. What can the movies in project Cine Casero s ay ab out society? Th e sho r t a g e o f m e a n s and the recording high costs that implied the image technologies during the twentieth century This first approach to the audiovisual heritage d i s t r i b u te d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d evidencing working strategies and verifying intuitions about the level of diffusion and the value of these audiovisual documents.
They enabled creating and implementing a working methodology that can be carried out in different towns and communities of the region. Workshop attendants have been trained in preventive conser vation practices for audiovisual materials. During community projections, some valuable collections were identified from the point of view of heritage. A n i m p o r t a n t m e d i a co m m u n i c a t i o n m a d e in connection to the announcement of the workshops and projections allowed placing the problem of heritage preservation in the public eye and establishing the discussion in colloquial terms, to which ordinary people may contribute, regardless of their education level, material or social capacities.
The involvement of young people evidenced the importance of uniting efforts for that target audience. Initially, Cine Casero focused on the general public, but with the idea that adults would. However, the young population becomes naturally part of the culture of images; they are closer to the audiovisual language as a way of expression and so they easily understand their heritage value.
A group of students from an artistic school attended the workshop carried out in the city of Fray Bentos. They had never watched a movie on film support and, therefore, did not know about the traditional cinema mechanism, this is, the moving image shown by a sequence of 24 frames per second. The workshop gave them the possibility to handle films and see domestic projectors in action, which made them passionate and inspired.
Also, many make audiovisual works they share in social media.
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