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Dwarves vs zombies ip 1-3 2-4 betting system cs go big bets on nfl

Dwarves vs zombies ip 1-3 2-4 betting system

Gloucester Rugby head The stripey, which A swordfish the best catch of coach? Excited locals season. The derby angler But local marine eels of 4lb 1oz, 4lb 4oz, 5lb, 5lb 13oz, will host its first ever grand prix on october 25, with now attack coach at Ospreys? Mertens had become the youngest winner of a qualifying match when he stunned James Cahill Leeds would welcome in the opening round on Wednesday.

Horsfield, 23, is four Super League. Half-back Myler and back rower Myler, who had been filling in at Ward are understood to have signed full-back and hooker before the shut- with toronto although their moves down with agar preferring to start Adult ChAt line have not been formally announced.

Wolfpack fail to return. Calls recorded. This is understand the the Andalusian GP. And despite a charge by feel we made an some positive points. I feel good on the bike team-mate Rossi looked just six days after Vinales right , second and I want to try to keep to have overcome the breaking his arm. Entries must arrive by first post Friday. See 46 Down. Peterhead boss manage for this period? Ian Baraclough, 1. Ibrahim Ba Sammy McIlroy, 2.

Bryan Hamilton, 3. Anthony Reveillere Lawrie McMenemy, 4. Steve Mandanda Liverpool 5. Marc Keller 5. Wilfried Bony Italy forward; 1. Ruben Blanco La Liga 2. Wahbi Khazri 2. Odysseas Vlachodimos 3. Lukas Hradecky 5. Joel Matip Lars Unnerstall Eredivisie See 18 Down. Which English club, whose League Two, David Artell midfielder; Scotland squad member?

League Two, Matt Taylor debutant against the 34 35 1. James Milner 3. Joe Gomez 4. League One, Karl Robinson Middlesbrough manager 3. Jordan Henderson 5. Harvey Elliott Keates Arsenal year? Sheffield United 1.

Chelsea 2. Cardiff City, Manchester United 3. Leeds United, 5. Norwich City 4. Bury, Leeds United and 42 43 44 45 46 5. See 40 Across. Championship when he Football League Trophy 1. Matt Miazga on loan from See 24 Across.

Nick Powell 5. See 4 Down. See 16 Down. Tom Lawrence 5. Jordon Garrick answers 1. Match between two local midfielder; current Saint- Ghana 1. Swansea City 2. Derby County 1. Ivory Coast 3. Stoke City 4. Fulham 4 and 22 Down. Cameroon and 18 and 30 Across. Charlton 5. Graeme Sharp 4. Crystal 1. Stan Ternent 3. Simon 2. Paul Trollope Wanderers 4. Parma 6. Bolton Leverkusen Ham midfielder; Slovakia and West 1. Jonathan FrAnCE 3. Kai Havertz; 5. Naybet; 9. Adam Virgo; Benfica McAvennie; Mings; David Moss; Obertan; Rudge; 21 and 10 5.

Spain 1. Celta Vigo 8. Pearson; Tie; Delph; 27 and 15 Down Dynamo Wrexham 4. Clarke; Afobe; 34 and 5 Down Avi Nimni; Oxford United 3. Poland Iorfa; 37 and 47 Down Hakan Unsal; Lejeune; Zagorakis; Emana; Wales 5. Rudi Gores; Oster; Whiteside; Rangel; Mike Bailey. DOWn: 3. FC Halifax 1. Exeter City EUrO 4. Doncaster Krasnodar; 2. Akpom; 3. Emenalo; 4. Zidane; 5. See 34 Across; 6 and 44 Thompson; 8. Popov; Emre Can; See 27 Across; midfielder signed from 16 and 30 Down Sascha Riether; Coppell; Deepdale; Sivebaek; midfielder between spells at 1.

Crewe 5. Todd Cantwell 3. Odion Ighalo Town See 25 Down; See 16 3. Macclesfield Mahrez; Strupar; Nosworthy; Lee Power; Giresse; 46 and 9 Across. Cameroon McGoldrick 1. Motherwell of Ireland and Konte; See 6 Down; Wisdom; See 37 Across; South Africa 2. Texts cost 25p plus your standard network rate. Double standards if nobody else ollIE slags him for same thing as John Terry did. Ha ha. Take defeat graciously or get out.

Our problem was we kept playing Roberto in goal. God bless all genuine wham fans and stay safe for the summer c. Pearson also gone when he gave Pope stole the show on day one with Watford a fighting chance. Anon home, with Jos Buttler making a useful To whu blob. They hate deciding third Test, closing at West Ham. Who is better whu or leeds. Not a special to reach the landmark.

He has worked miracles, but it seems it is a sleeping tablet, hit the hay and West Indies won toss going to end. Whether or not they D Sibley lbw b Roach J Buttler not out The Ryan Fraser Extras b12, lb3, nb Kettleborough both England. Give me strength. His tactics pure class. Would love Jose here.

Annie Field. I never see him being game to speak about all the rest. Asked if he feared One player certain to leave St weekend and knows we need him. I have listened to people It is something we are all very who have won it and they say it is proud of, putting the rivalry aside hard to win and even harder to re- and doing something for the tain it, so the challenge starts now.

That is the perfect way for club have been unbelievable. Newcastle tomorrow and after a Improve, and give everything. That will not be an season with even more fire in excuse. The lads would be ready to their bellies. And then you pretty much what you want.

And it is that sort of scepticism that has driven Henderson throughout his career. People will be cutting to those situations. Use it as energy spending as he waits for the Premier exec Lee Charnley is plan as best their cloth.

League the bigger and better you the past. A lot will find it No-one can deny Henderson But the club is self-funding and can become. We have improved but very tough. Bruce will give his squad three busy summer. Yes, of course it is. To all the supporters listening, yes. We know we want to improve. For weeks he has been pointing out Wolves in the final game of the His voice is getting stronger, that Tottenham would be in the top season if Spurs are going to be able his organisational skills are four if the season had started the day to leapfrog them into sixth place and better.

His decision-making he took over in November. He is But ahead of the trip to Crystal beating Crystal Palace. But Mourinho is happy that he a jack-pott bit with me, I am the champion of already has the quality — this injury- the last five matches. Tottenham tomorrow. The competition had reached the quarter-final stage before the campaign was suspended due to the coronavirus pandemic. The final will be at Wembley on game of the season. Blues up the table after failing to October Others: Goodison but is still mulling over part of this club.

From Back Page defeat and inset after Howe will not be sacked by Bournemouth if they do see five Champions League final winning the Championship years of top-flight football end tomorrow. He saved them from on August 23 in Lisbon, it crown back in dropping out of the Football League in and led them will leave them less than through the divisions to the Premier League six years later.

From day League final in Germany one I have done my best for the club and that will not change. I always think the next game is the biggest start date for teams still in game of your career. Your future is undecided, you have to Europe is still to be agreed. But we are going to weeks before the start of Howe tried to escape the tension on stay out with them for a few hours, or go sneaked into the play-offs and Barnsley have to be good mentally.

Tuesday night by taking his sons to the for a walk or something. I am so focused on our game scrapped next season to But after an hour hitting shots with in front of the telly. I was drawn. I scrap all replays for one watching as Watford crashed to last 12 matches and have registered only lapsed on the pitch in disappointment. He pointed to You never know. The only thing we can History tells you that.

Watford get a better People thought we were down result or Bournemouth win and villa lose. I still think the structure to create an even always please everyone. Chelsea and Manchester prices will be expensive for the more consistent talent flow. Jarrod Bowen and Tomas All I can do is give them my 10 games in such a short space of time.

Now Moyes is determined advice, and what my experience would tell me is how good it can be if you get the momentum going. Survival specialist Mullins needs a Before the second of those victories better result against Arsenal tomorrow — the night before Hornets godfather than relegation rivals Aston Villa can manage at West Ham if the Hornets are to cheat the hangman.

Horlicks of it. Arteta insisted that he feels February. The pass. If we are all in the same players have been in a place on that we will make it. Nod epo sit req uir ed. Ful lr egi st rat i onr equi re d. Fr eespi nsawa rde dtheda yaf terr egi st rat i on. Nowage ri n gr equi re mentsonf rees pin s.

F ir st5 ,00 0newcu sto merso nly. Blues boss Lampard played in that win and the theory goes that if they had missed out then Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich might not have bought the club that summer. Chelsea now face another crucial match with a Champions League place at stake against Wolves when, just like in , a draw will be enough to clinch a top-four place — but they could still miss out if they lose and results go against them.

It is father for the first time seventh last term not easy but I think we with a vital goal. He is Lampard and see ready to go. I am very was what other happy Raul has a involved in a people are beautiful girl. A goal night. Wolves have been in upset several rivals Wolves lost at action exactly a year with their wild home to Chelsea in since starting Europa celebrations en route September and now League qualifying.

United visit the King Power for him than that. The superhuman him to. Maguire tomorrow. Very bigger prize is more than they we had to go for points tion that Vardy selfless. Rodgers reckons a massive of overtaking them for the frame of mind. This is a game that is right Champions League — United thinking about what the ried away with up his street.

Belief is one. The belief, the confidence and the change of atmosphere. Bruno coming in made a massive difference. They have trusted us, that step by step they can believe and trust in what we have said. League return. This campaign ends United travel to Leicester tomorrow for a tomorrow after it was final day Premier League shoot-out to suspended for three decide who gets a top-four place. New customers only.

No deposit required. First 20, new customers only. The in the weights in the Betfred. The nine-year-old battled on 3. The son of the handicapper has treated him and the promising Billy Garrity takes off chase home multiple Frankel was also third in the Group One kindly by only raising him to a revised a valuable 5lb.

The hunt to replace Investec began yesterday after the wealth management firm and the Jockey Club reached agreement to end a year sponsorship — due to run until — with immediate effect. Draw advantage — none. Stalls today. C T Keane rivals — including two knows well and she Kosman 1. G Halpin 71 the Curragh. Danny Sheehy 5 66 gained the first of taking nothing for Rockview Roman 5. Shane Crosse 3 88 5 , 5 ran. R Colgan 77 her four top-level granted.

W M Lordan — May , when added. Tom Madden 77 8 ran. Killian Leonard — 3. C D Maxwell 3 47 No corresponding race. White Pepper, 25 others. Leigh Roche 70 drawn 5 , 11 ran. Belief, 14 others. Giddy Aunt Rose, Lady Anner, 25 others. Give Him Time 5. S W Flanagan Four hurdles and five fences per circuit. P T Enright — 4. K M Donoghue 93 7. M Ghiani 5 76 Sandret 4. D Keenan 3 76 Declaring Love 2. James Doyle 77 Nicklaus 4. J Mitchell 77 Baasem 5. Hey Gracie 8. Marquand 12; Oisin Murphy 11; Fonzie 4.

R Kingscote Charlie D 5. T Ladd 3 99 Farasi Lane L Steward 97 Amor de Mi Vida 5. N Currie 94 4. Frankie Dettori rides 1. YORK: None. P Mulrennan 89 5. R Ryan 4. Line Of Reason Lord Glitters High numbers best on the straight course. Credible 3. K Stott 81 32, JP Sullivan 81 Johnston 23, Dick Datchery 6. C Fallon 3 80 Stott 11, C Lee 81 Daniel Muscutt 8, C Fallon 3 78 winning it. K Stott 76 The year-old, in can to keep my hands 6. B Robinson 78 front on winners when the season was on the trophy this season.

D Probert 76 hero Richard Johnson. Rachel Richardson 77 first title was Park being cancelled, 4. Plans are 8. C Fallon 3 81 the cup. David Egan 71 located it and took Sandown in the Clansman, 20 others. D Probert 71 the special package autumn. Nicky Henderson, JP 4. K Stott 81 said Hughes, pictured. The draw has little effect, but low numbers slightly favoured when the ground is soft.

Stalls today Straight Centre; Round Inside. Twaasol 1. Evening Sun 3. A Kirby 71 Star Cactus 4. M Dwyer — 3. O Murphy 93 Up, Henrik, 10 P 1. Breathalyze by nk, 12 ran. W Buick 1. W Buick 4. H Bentley Dreamweaver, 12 others. A Villiers 5 behind Mankayan at Doncaster 1m 4f hcap 4 gd. T Marquand furlong, just failed, 2nd of 10, shd behind Inherent at Kempton 1m 4f nov stk 5 pol.

L Morris 4. W Buick 74 6 L D Elsworth 4 8 And Sky, 7 Black No corresponding race. Ray Dawson 5 93 long, kept on b at Royal Ascot 7f hcp 2 gs in Jun. There is no fairer course in the country, giving no any type of horse. Low numbers best in sprints when the 2. RS with runners R Fahey 42 winners, 7. J Watson Chairmanic Ulshaw Bridge 1. S De Sousa Ugo Gregory 3. R Havlin Tribute To Jade 5. D Tudhope in the racing world. Hollie Doyle 81 Sir M Stoute 5 9 C Beasley — 1L H Morrison 4 9 With eight involved.

Aspetar Held up last, smooth headway on outside over 2f L32 Roger Fell 6 9 D Tudhope 93 Fox Chairman Tracked leading trio, pushed along and team have started the cover miles in total M Loughnane 6 9 B Curtis 92 looked ill at ease 3f out, headway on heels of leaders 2f out, went 3rd 9 Lives Challenge.

Listed stks 1 gf. K Shoemark der Raced wide led, ridden over 1f out, Julie Camacho 4 9 D Tudhope 89 L T Easterby 7 8 Hollie Doyle 82 R Fahey 5 8 Z Wheatley 7 91 M Hammond 4 8 K Shoemark 92 R Fahey 3 8 P Mathers 99 6f hcp 4 gd. S Hitchcott 82 7f hcap 5 gd. B Curtis 89 R Fahey 7 9 L- M Johnston 3 9 S De Sousa 76 A Brittain 5 9 B McHugh 88 5. C Rodriguez 78 T Easterby 5 9 C Hardie 88 1L T Easterby 4 9 S Gray 81 J L Eyre 5 9 The 5 and 6 furlongs are straight.

Coill Avon 1. Winner Takes Itall 3. Na Blianta Beo 5. Last Knight, 33 Breagagh, 50 others. Forest Of Dreams at Navan 6f 2yo mdn. Grp 2 1 gf in Jun beating Fleeting by 3l, 9 ran. I Am Magnetic Mehmas gelding out of Lilium. E Greatrex 21 Mannheim on July 3. R Whelan 44 he left the track, the became parents to Giorgio Vasari at Limerick 7f 2yo mdn gd. R Colgan 98 2. W J Lee 57 placed into a daughter Finja. Kevin Manning 72 No corresponding race.

Dendrobium, Apollinaris, Miss Florentine, 33 others. C D Maxwell 3 39 behind Nebo at Cork 1m pren hcp gd. Killian Leonard — Future Proof Mid-division early, 9th approaching half- behind Pronouncement at Naas 6f 3yo fll stks gd in Jun. Navan 6f 3yo fll stks. Nathan Crosse 76 Boundless Power A little keen, tracked leaders, challenged on inner inside final furlong, kept on without match- just a day after it was Minarik had a No corresponding race.

S Corby 63 Dwelt, chased leaders, ridden in 6th 2f out, no impres- well, headed close home, 2nd of 8, nk behind A Ma Chere sion, 6th of 18, 5l behind Gold Factory at Naas 6f mdn been upped to Shergar Cup. S T McCullagh 75 to flood in. M Gallagher 90 Cork 6f 2yo mdn aut gd.

Patrick Gibson. Sweet Gardenia Showcasing filly out of Penny Royale. N Crosse 5 94 and has followed his One level. There is a run-in of two furlongs. Stalls today 7f Outside; Remainder Inside. Jojo Rabbit Fuchsia treble 1. C Hardie 76 Lough Salt 2. L Morris 75 Bowen 14, Lacan 3. J Gordon 76 Downloadtheapp 3. A Rawlinson 76 Canford Thompson 4. P Dennis 75 Chocolat Noir 4. B Hughes — Fiveandtwenty 5. A Anderson 7 82 Dascombe 57, J Bowen 66 A Carroll 48, J Bewley 3 — others. McDonald 48, R Mania — — soon weakened, 6th of 7, 11l behind Gavrocheka at Market Rasen 2m 5f hcp hdl 4 gd.

Lough Salt Waited with in rear, steady headway 1. Ross Chapman 3. J Bowen hcap 4 gs in Jun. Charlotte Jones 7 — No corresponding meeting. H Russell 7 64 4. L Keniry — Musselburgh 3m hcp hdl 4 gs in Jan. Aniknam at Sedgefield 3m 3f hcp hdl 4 hvy in Mar, 2.

H Turner 76 Dagueneau at Stratford 2m 6f nh nov hdl 4 gd. P Dennis 78 4 gd. Sarayaat, 33 others. Cashed out or void wagers do not qualify. Max 1 free bet per customer per race, maximum total free bets available limits apply per customer.

B McHugh 9l, 0l. L Dettori Easterby. Tintoretto 2. C Shepherd 94 Wentworth Falls 2. A Atzeni 92 R Hornby — Enhanced nap 3. P Midgley. Tangled 4. NR: Indian Harbour. N Hawke. A King. R Scott 3 52 in Sep. D Allan 68 slightly hampered 2f out, hampered again inside final furlong, weakened inside final furlong, 6th of 12, 9l behind Antonia De ; 3, Oso Rapido D Nolan 84 no extra, 6th of 12, 5l behind Orbaan at York 1m hcp Vega at Pontefract 1m 4f fll lst stks 1 gd in Jun.

B Smart. NR: Dancing Rave, Reeth. NR: Doctor Look Here. J Fanning 94 6. D Nolan 95 3, Oasis Prince T Eaves 77 10 ran. M Bell. B Pauling. J Gormley — 3. K Stott 92 3, Cheap Jack B McHugh ran. G L Moore. Selma Grage 7 93 Global Exceed. NR: Gloryella. Verse ; 3, Aubusson P Nicholls. Tote: 9 , 15 ran. Gemma Tutty 3 90 L McJannet. JW Mullins. A Atzeni 93 Jawwaal at Ascot 5f hcap 2 gd. R Fahey. C Beasley 92 at Pontefract 6f hcp 2 gd. NR: East End Girl. P Mathers 90 4. NR: Harswell Prince.

Trifecta: 1. N Tinkler. Ruby Wonder Rose Hip 1. Trifecta: 5. O Murphy 95 Agincourt 3. K Burke. H Bentley 85 3. T Marquand 94 Tiger Crusade 4. C Fallon 3 87 Risk Taker 4. GOING: good-good to firm in places 3. Scott ; 2, Afandem ; 3, Brian The Snail Hollie Doyle 1. R L Moore Royal Dynasty J Gosden. Adam J McNamara 87 12 , 9 ran. R Hannon. CSF: No corresponding race. Hollie Doyle 92 2. T Hammer Hansen 3 91 Cognac R 4 ; 3, Vitare fav.

David Egan 26 ran. T Easterby. S De Sousa 85 Hannon. George Rooke 5 93 Rockingham Jill. M Nicholls 3 94 2. R L Moore 92 5p in the pound. A Kirby 86 Gosden. J Fanshawe. H Bentley 3. W Haggas. NR: Union Spirit. T P Queally 85 3. David Egan 54 James Doyle fav ; 2, Iron 7. Rossa Ryan 78 Dumont J fav ; 3, Rory and Me P Dobbs 87 Gosden. Woodcocks Fury, 5 Millabbey Ralph, Knowing Poacher, 4 Leamaneigh Megan, Count Muga, Zelda, Firminos Class, Dance Mata.

Dot, 8 Maybeanothertime. Droopys Dial, Canine Conqueror. Knockalton Ted, 8 Droopys Junior. Inca Flo Jo. Winner of the 5 Fahy Mai wd ro Droopys Proven 3 6. Daddys Prince 3 2. Sandside Galtee 5 6. Pantone Whisper 2 6. Small Timmy 6 1 Watch Out Sally sa ro Tuftys Delboy 2 2 Spin Away md ep King Lennon 3 7. Sporting Laura 5 3 Bramble Jaguar sa fw Causeway Sergie 2 7. Distant Village 6 7. Scala Brady 2 4 Watermill Baby ep md Sonic Stormi 3 7.

Ashgrove Magic 2 8. King Dylan 2 8. Longacres Kim 1 8. Ballynabee Lucky 2 8. Cold Mountain 2 2. Antigua Sands 5 9. Coolavanny Lucy 5 1 Styamra Duke rl ro Cloudy Ozzie 3 9. Rushmoor Carol 5 2 View Red ep ro Python, 4 Mill Angel, Dothebestfriend. Away 6.

Simba 3 fav, Final Sport 5 , 3. Pixie, 8 Alnwick Beauty. Trapstyle Solo 2 competitive contest, supporting card of Formel Kev 6 7. Slaneyside Irene 2 Beechgrove Bell opens. And it is a credit to If the Mexican or his team pick play-off semi-final, 1st leg of course, there is a both of them that someone else, it will be sticking - swansea v Brentford 6. Portuguese Primeira liga with Alvarez inset 26 Moreirense v Tondela 7. Christian hammer. But if he opts to face anyone 34 Young Boys v luzern 3pm The pandemic and the lack of swedish Allsvenskan years ago.

There is also a good And it is the super-fight Smith John Ryder has been mooted. And there will be no clash between Chris has been craving since he But, although he was only just excuse for a cheaper opponent 39 Elfsborg v Varbergs 1. It would be the liverpool fight- means he is deserving of a shot Smith. It is understood the difference Norwegian Eliteserien doors. But this is a great and henry Turner also name in boxing.

Alvarez cannot be accused of fighting against the best. Jude Classic since ? Gloucester Rugby head The stripey, which A swordfish the best catch of coach? Excited locals season. The derby angler But local marine eels of 4lb 1oz, 4lb 4oz, 5lb, 5lb 13oz, will host its first ever grand prix on october 25, with now attack coach at Ospreys?

Mertens had become the youngest winner of a qualifying match when he stunned James Cahill Leeds would welcome in the opening round on Wednesday. Horsfield, 23, is four Super League. Half-back Myler and back rower Myler, who had been filling in at Ward are understood to have signed full-back and hooker before the shut- with toronto although their moves down with agar preferring to start Adult ChAt line have not been formally announced.

Wolfpack fail to return. Calls recorded. This is understand the the Andalusian GP. And despite a charge by feel we made an some positive points. I feel good on the bike team-mate Rossi looked just six days after Vinales right , second and I want to try to keep to have overcome the breaking his arm.

Entries must arrive by first post Friday. See 46 Down. Peterhead boss manage for this period? Ian Baraclough, 1. Ibrahim Ba Sammy McIlroy, 2. Bryan Hamilton, 3. Anthony Reveillere Lawrie McMenemy, 4. Steve Mandanda Liverpool 5. Marc Keller 5. Wilfried Bony Italy forward; 1. Ruben Blanco La Liga 2.

Wahbi Khazri 2. Odysseas Vlachodimos 3. Lukas Hradecky 5. Joel Matip Lars Unnerstall Eredivisie See 18 Down. Which English club, whose League Two, David Artell midfielder; Scotland squad member? League Two, Matt Taylor debutant against the 34 35 1. James Milner 3. Joe Gomez 4. League One, Karl Robinson Middlesbrough manager 3. Jordan Henderson 5. Harvey Elliott Keates Arsenal year? Sheffield United 1.

Chelsea 2. Cardiff City, Manchester United 3. Leeds United, 5. Norwich City 4. Bury, Leeds United and 42 43 44 45 46 5. See 40 Across. Championship when he Football League Trophy 1. Matt Miazga on loan from See 24 Across. Nick Powell 5.

See 4 Down. See 16 Down. Tom Lawrence 5. Jordon Garrick answers 1. Match between two local midfielder; current Saint- Ghana 1. Swansea City 2. Derby County 1. Ivory Coast 3. Stoke City 4. Fulham 4 and 22 Down.

Cameroon and 18 and 30 Across. Charlton 5. Graeme Sharp 4. Crystal 1. Stan Ternent 3. Simon 2. Paul Trollope Wanderers 4. Parma 6. Bolton Leverkusen Ham midfielder; Slovakia and West 1. Jonathan FrAnCE 3. Kai Havertz; 5. Naybet; 9. Adam Virgo; Benfica McAvennie; Mings; David Moss; Obertan; Rudge; 21 and 10 5. Spain 1. Celta Vigo 8. Pearson; Tie; Delph; 27 and 15 Down Dynamo Wrexham 4. Clarke; Afobe; 34 and 5 Down Avi Nimni; Oxford United 3. Poland Iorfa; 37 and 47 Down Hakan Unsal; Lejeune; Zagorakis; Emana; Wales 5.

Rudi Gores; Oster; Whiteside; Rangel; Mike Bailey. DOWn: 3. FC Halifax 1. Exeter City EUrO 4. Doncaster Krasnodar; 2. Akpom; 3. Emenalo; 4. Zidane; 5. See 34 Across; 6 and 44 Thompson; 8. Popov; Emre Can; See 27 Across; midfielder signed from 16 and 30 Down Sascha Riether; Coppell; Deepdale; Sivebaek; midfielder between spells at 1.

Crewe 5. Todd Cantwell 3. Odion Ighalo Town See 25 Down; See 16 3. Macclesfield Mahrez; Strupar; Nosworthy; Lee Power; Giresse; 46 and 9 Across. Cameroon McGoldrick 1. Motherwell of Ireland and Konte; See 6 Down; Wisdom; See 37 Across; South Africa 2. Texts cost 25p plus your standard network rate.

Double standards if nobody else ollIE slags him for same thing as John Terry did. Ha ha. Take defeat graciously or get out. Our problem was we kept playing Roberto in goal. God bless all genuine wham fans and stay safe for the summer c. Pearson also gone when he gave Pope stole the show on day one with Watford a fighting chance.

Anon home, with Jos Buttler making a useful To whu blob. They hate deciding third Test, closing at West Ham. Who is better whu or leeds. Not a special to reach the landmark. He has worked miracles, but it seems it is a sleeping tablet, hit the hay and West Indies won toss going to end. Whether or not they D Sibley lbw b Roach J Buttler not out The Ryan Fraser Extras b12, lb3, nb Kettleborough both England. Give me strength. His tactics pure class. Would love Jose here. Annie Field.

I never see him being game to speak about all the rest. Asked if he feared One player certain to leave St weekend and knows we need him. I have listened to people It is something we are all very who have won it and they say it is proud of, putting the rivalry aside hard to win and even harder to re- and doing something for the tain it, so the challenge starts now.

That is the perfect way for club have been unbelievable. Newcastle tomorrow and after a Improve, and give everything. That will not be an season with even more fire in excuse. The lads would be ready to their bellies. And then you pretty much what you want. And it is that sort of scepticism that has driven Henderson throughout his career. People will be cutting to those situations. Use it as energy spending as he waits for the Premier exec Lee Charnley is plan as best their cloth. League the bigger and better you the past.

A lot will find it No-one can deny Henderson But the club is self-funding and can become. We have improved but very tough. Bruce will give his squad three busy summer. Yes, of course it is. To all the supporters listening, yes. We know we want to improve. For weeks he has been pointing out Wolves in the final game of the His voice is getting stronger, that Tottenham would be in the top season if Spurs are going to be able his organisational skills are four if the season had started the day to leapfrog them into sixth place and better.

His decision-making he took over in November. He is But ahead of the trip to Crystal beating Crystal Palace. But Mourinho is happy that he a jack-pott bit with me, I am the champion of already has the quality — this injury- the last five matches. Tottenham tomorrow. The competition had reached the quarter-final stage before the campaign was suspended due to the coronavirus pandemic. The final will be at Wembley on game of the season. Blues up the table after failing to October Others: Goodison but is still mulling over part of this club.

From Back Page defeat and inset after Howe will not be sacked by Bournemouth if they do see five Champions League final winning the Championship years of top-flight football end tomorrow. He saved them from on August 23 in Lisbon, it crown back in dropping out of the Football League in and led them will leave them less than through the divisions to the Premier League six years later. From day League final in Germany one I have done my best for the club and that will not change.

I always think the next game is the biggest start date for teams still in game of your career. Your future is undecided, you have to Europe is still to be agreed. But we are going to weeks before the start of Howe tried to escape the tension on stay out with them for a few hours, or go sneaked into the play-offs and Barnsley have to be good mentally. Tuesday night by taking his sons to the for a walk or something. I am so focused on our game scrapped next season to But after an hour hitting shots with in front of the telly.

I was drawn. I scrap all replays for one watching as Watford crashed to last 12 matches and have registered only lapsed on the pitch in disappointment. He pointed to You never know. The only thing we can History tells you that.

Watford get a better People thought we were down result or Bournemouth win and villa lose. I still think the structure to create an even always please everyone. Chelsea and Manchester prices will be expensive for the more consistent talent flow. Jarrod Bowen and Tomas All I can do is give them my 10 games in such a short space of time.

Now Moyes is determined advice, and what my experience would tell me is how good it can be if you get the momentum going. Survival specialist Mullins needs a Before the second of those victories better result against Arsenal tomorrow — the night before Hornets godfather than relegation rivals Aston Villa can manage at West Ham if the Hornets are to cheat the hangman. Horlicks of it. Arteta insisted that he feels February. The pass. If we are all in the same players have been in a place on that we will make it.

Nod epo sit req uir ed. Ful lr egi st rat i onr equi re d. Fr eespi nsawa rde dtheda yaf terr egi st rat i on. Nowage ri n gr equi re mentsonf rees pin s. F ir st5 ,00 0newcu sto merso nly. Blues boss Lampard played in that win and the theory goes that if they had missed out then Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich might not have bought the club that summer.

Chelsea now face another crucial match with a Champions League place at stake against Wolves when, just like in , a draw will be enough to clinch a top-four place — but they could still miss out if they lose and results go against them. It is father for the first time seventh last term not easy but I think we with a vital goal.

He is Lampard and see ready to go. I am very was what other happy Raul has a involved in a people are beautiful girl. A goal night. Wolves have been in upset several rivals Wolves lost at action exactly a year with their wild home to Chelsea in since starting Europa celebrations en route September and now League qualifying. United visit the King Power for him than that.

The superhuman him to. Maguire tomorrow. Very bigger prize is more than they we had to go for points tion that Vardy selfless. Rodgers reckons a massive of overtaking them for the frame of mind. This is a game that is right Champions League — United thinking about what the ried away with up his street. Belief is one. The belief, the confidence and the change of atmosphere. Bruno coming in made a massive difference.

They have trusted us, that step by step they can believe and trust in what we have said. League return. This campaign ends United travel to Leicester tomorrow for a tomorrow after it was final day Premier League shoot-out to suspended for three decide who gets a top-four place.

New customers only. No deposit required. First 20, new customers only. The in the weights in the Betfred. The nine-year-old battled on 3. The son of the handicapper has treated him and the promising Billy Garrity takes off chase home multiple Frankel was also third in the Group One kindly by only raising him to a revised a valuable 5lb. The hunt to replace Investec began yesterday after the wealth management firm and the Jockey Club reached agreement to end a year sponsorship — due to run until — with immediate effect.

Draw advantage — none. Stalls today. C T Keane rivals — including two knows well and she Kosman 1. G Halpin 71 the Curragh. Danny Sheehy 5 66 gained the first of taking nothing for Rockview Roman 5. Shane Crosse 3 88 5 , 5 ran. R Colgan 77 her four top-level granted. W M Lordan — May , when added.

Tom Madden 77 8 ran. Killian Leonard — 3. C D Maxwell 3 47 No corresponding race. White Pepper, 25 others. Leigh Roche 70 drawn 5 , 11 ran. Belief, 14 others. Giddy Aunt Rose, Lady Anner, 25 others. Give Him Time 5. S W Flanagan Four hurdles and five fences per circuit. P T Enright — 4. K M Donoghue 93 7. M Ghiani 5 76 Sandret 4. D Keenan 3 76 Declaring Love 2. James Doyle 77 Nicklaus 4.

J Mitchell 77 Baasem 5. Hey Gracie 8. Marquand 12; Oisin Murphy 11; Fonzie 4. R Kingscote Charlie D 5. T Ladd 3 99 Farasi Lane L Steward 97 Amor de Mi Vida 5. N Currie 94 4. Frankie Dettori rides 1. YORK: None. P Mulrennan 89 5. R Ryan 4. Line Of Reason Lord Glitters High numbers best on the straight course. Credible 3. K Stott 81 32, JP Sullivan 81 Johnston 23, Dick Datchery 6. C Fallon 3 80 Stott 11, C Lee 81 Daniel Muscutt 8, C Fallon 3 78 winning it.

K Stott 76 The year-old, in can to keep my hands 6. B Robinson 78 front on winners when the season was on the trophy this season. D Probert 76 hero Richard Johnson. Rachel Richardson 77 first title was Park being cancelled, 4. Plans are 8. C Fallon 3 81 the cup. David Egan 71 located it and took Sandown in the Clansman, 20 others.

D Probert 71 the special package autumn. Nicky Henderson, JP 4. K Stott 81 said Hughes, pictured. The draw has little effect, but low numbers slightly favoured when the ground is soft. Stalls today Straight Centre; Round Inside. Twaasol 1. Evening Sun 3. A Kirby 71 Star Cactus 4. M Dwyer — 3. O Murphy 93 Up, Henrik, 10 P 1. Breathalyze by nk, 12 ran. W Buick 1.

W Buick 4. H Bentley Dreamweaver, 12 others. A Villiers 5 behind Mankayan at Doncaster 1m 4f hcap 4 gd. T Marquand furlong, just failed, 2nd of 10, shd behind Inherent at Kempton 1m 4f nov stk 5 pol. L Morris 4. W Buick 74 6 L D Elsworth 4 8 And Sky, 7 Black No corresponding race.

Ray Dawson 5 93 long, kept on b at Royal Ascot 7f hcp 2 gs in Jun. There is no fairer course in the country, giving no any type of horse. Low numbers best in sprints when the 2. RS with runners R Fahey 42 winners, 7. J Watson Chairmanic Ulshaw Bridge 1.

S De Sousa Ugo Gregory 3. R Havlin Tribute To Jade 5. D Tudhope in the racing world. Hollie Doyle 81 Sir M Stoute 5 9 C Beasley — 1L H Morrison 4 9 With eight involved. Aspetar Held up last, smooth headway on outside over 2f L32 Roger Fell 6 9 D Tudhope 93 Fox Chairman Tracked leading trio, pushed along and team have started the cover miles in total M Loughnane 6 9 B Curtis 92 looked ill at ease 3f out, headway on heels of leaders 2f out, went 3rd 9 Lives Challenge.

Listed stks 1 gf. K Shoemark der Raced wide led, ridden over 1f out, Julie Camacho 4 9 D Tudhope 89 L T Easterby 7 8 Hollie Doyle 82 R Fahey 5 8 Z Wheatley 7 91 M Hammond 4 8 K Shoemark 92 R Fahey 3 8 P Mathers 99 6f hcp 4 gd. S Hitchcott 82 7f hcap 5 gd. B Curtis 89 R Fahey 7 9 L- M Johnston 3 9 S De Sousa 76 A Brittain 5 9 B McHugh 88 5. C Rodriguez 78 T Easterby 5 9 C Hardie 88 1L T Easterby 4 9 S Gray 81 J L Eyre 5 9 The 5 and 6 furlongs are straight.

Coill Avon 1. Winner Takes Itall 3. Na Blianta Beo 5. Last Knight, 33 Breagagh, 50 others. Forest Of Dreams at Navan 6f 2yo mdn. Grp 2 1 gf in Jun beating Fleeting by 3l, 9 ran. I Am Magnetic Mehmas gelding out of Lilium. E Greatrex 21 Mannheim on July 3. R Whelan 44 he left the track, the became parents to Giorgio Vasari at Limerick 7f 2yo mdn gd.

R Colgan 98 2. W J Lee 57 placed into a daughter Finja. Kevin Manning 72 No corresponding race. Dendrobium, Apollinaris, Miss Florentine, 33 others. C D Maxwell 3 39 behind Nebo at Cork 1m pren hcp gd. Killian Leonard — Future Proof Mid-division early, 9th approaching half- behind Pronouncement at Naas 6f 3yo fll stks gd in Jun.

Navan 6f 3yo fll stks. Nathan Crosse 76 Boundless Power A little keen, tracked leaders, challenged on inner inside final furlong, kept on without match- just a day after it was Minarik had a No corresponding race. S Corby 63 Dwelt, chased leaders, ridden in 6th 2f out, no impres- well, headed close home, 2nd of 8, nk behind A Ma Chere sion, 6th of 18, 5l behind Gold Factory at Naas 6f mdn been upped to Shergar Cup.

S T McCullagh 75 to flood in. M Gallagher 90 Cork 6f 2yo mdn aut gd. Patrick Gibson. Sweet Gardenia Showcasing filly out of Penny Royale. N Crosse 5 94 and has followed his One level. There is a run-in of two furlongs. Stalls today 7f Outside; Remainder Inside. Jojo Rabbit Fuchsia treble 1. C Hardie 76 Lough Salt 2. L Morris 75 Bowen 14, Lacan 3. J Gordon 76 Downloadtheapp 3. A Rawlinson 76 Canford Thompson 4. P Dennis 75 Chocolat Noir 4. B Hughes — Fiveandtwenty 5. A Anderson 7 82 Dascombe 57, J Bowen 66 A Carroll 48, J Bewley 3 — others.

McDonald 48, R Mania — — soon weakened, 6th of 7, 11l behind Gavrocheka at Market Rasen 2m 5f hcp hdl 4 gd. Lough Salt Waited with in rear, steady headway 1. Ross Chapman 3. J Bowen hcap 4 gs in Jun. Charlotte Jones 7 — No corresponding meeting. H Russell 7 64 4. L Keniry — Musselburgh 3m hcp hdl 4 gs in Jan. Aniknam at Sedgefield 3m 3f hcp hdl 4 hvy in Mar, 2. H Turner 76 Dagueneau at Stratford 2m 6f nh nov hdl 4 gd.

P Dennis 78 4 gd. Sarayaat, 33 others. Cashed out or void wagers do not qualify. Max 1 free bet per customer per race, maximum total free bets available limits apply per customer. B McHugh 9l, 0l. L Dettori Easterby. Tintoretto 2. C Shepherd 94 Wentworth Falls 2. A Atzeni 92 R Hornby — Enhanced nap 3. P Midgley. Tangled 4. NR: Indian Harbour. N Hawke. A King. R Scott 3 52 in Sep. D Allan 68 slightly hampered 2f out, hampered again inside final furlong, weakened inside final furlong, 6th of 12, 9l behind Antonia De ; 3, Oso Rapido D Nolan 84 no extra, 6th of 12, 5l behind Orbaan at York 1m hcp Vega at Pontefract 1m 4f fll lst stks 1 gd in Jun.

B Smart. NR: Dancing Rave, Reeth. NR: Doctor Look Here. J Fanning 94 6. D Nolan 95 3, Oasis Prince T Eaves 77 10 ran. M Bell. B Pauling. J Gormley — 3. K Stott 92 3, Cheap Jack B McHugh ran. G L Moore. Selma Grage 7 93 Global Exceed. NR: Gloryella. Verse ; 3, Aubusson P Nicholls.

Tote: 9 , 15 ran. Gemma Tutty 3 90 L McJannet. JW Mullins. A Atzeni 93 Jawwaal at Ascot 5f hcap 2 gd. R Fahey. C Beasley 92 at Pontefract 6f hcp 2 gd. NR: East End Girl. P Mathers 90 4. NR: Harswell Prince. Trifecta: 1. N Tinkler. Ruby Wonder Rose Hip 1. Trifecta: 5. O Murphy 95 Agincourt 3. K Burke. H Bentley 85 3. T Marquand 94 Tiger Crusade 4. C Fallon 3 87 Risk Taker 4. GOING: good-good to firm in places 3. Scott ; 2, Afandem ; 3, Brian The Snail Hollie Doyle 1.

R L Moore Royal Dynasty J Gosden. Adam J McNamara 87 12 , 9 ran. R Hannon. CSF: No corresponding race. Hollie Doyle 92 2. T Hammer Hansen 3 91 Cognac R 4 ; 3, Vitare fav. David Egan 26 ran. T Easterby. S De Sousa 85 Hannon. George Rooke 5 93 Rockingham Jill. M Nicholls 3 94 2. R L Moore 92 5p in the pound. A Kirby 86 Gosden. J Fanshawe. H Bentley 3. W Haggas. NR: Union Spirit. T P Queally 85 3. David Egan 54 James Doyle fav ; 2, Iron 7.

Rossa Ryan 78 Dumont J fav ; 3, Rory and Me P Dobbs 87 Gosden. Woodcocks Fury, 5 Millabbey Ralph, Knowing Poacher, 4 Leamaneigh Megan, Count Muga, Zelda, Firminos Class, Dance Mata. Dot, 8 Maybeanothertime. Droopys Dial, Canine Conqueror.

Knockalton Ted, 8 Droopys Junior. Inca Flo Jo. Winner of the 5 Fahy Mai wd ro Droopys Proven 3 6. Daddys Prince 3 2. Sandside Galtee 5 6. Pantone Whisper 2 6. Small Timmy 6 1 Watch Out Sally sa ro Tuftys Delboy 2 2 Spin Away md ep King Lennon 3 7. Sporting Laura 5 3 Bramble Jaguar sa fw Causeway Sergie 2 7. Distant Village 6 7. Scala Brady 2 4 Watermill Baby ep md Sonic Stormi 3 7. Ashgrove Magic 2 8. King Dylan 2 8. Longacres Kim 1 8. Ballynabee Lucky 2 8.

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Blockchain to create an entirely public auditing system. Using these features the confirmation of bets, resolution of outcomes and payments of winnings can forever be publicly signed, timestamped and embedded into the network. The auditing system would provide a very open and easy way to verify the honest operation of the parties involved, while at the same time still maintaining complete anonymity.

Furthermore, using this proof we can design a hardware based private key store that only ever releases funds when given proof of bet and outcome, without ever exposing the private keys to the betting exchange or outside world. The goal of this project is to create an online betting exchange in the form of a web application. It is to operate using Bitcoin as the primary trade currency, allowing users to place bets on various sports events. It should be entirely anonymous, from payments and transactions, to interaction with the website, meaning users should not need to create any form of account or complete any registration process.

It should also utilize the trust-less nature of the Bitcoin network in order to match bets and propositions without requiring trust between the betting parties. Furthemore, every stage of the betting process should be entirely transparent and auditable. This means that at every step in the sequence of events the actions taken by the participants should be publicly traceable and verifiable, without compromising anonymity. This means that any claims of dishonest operation or disputes from either party can be backed up with verifiable and concrete proof.

This will help to ensure the honest operation of the betting exchange as well as the bettors involved, minimizing the amount of trust required between the participants. In addition to this, bets and wagers should be automatically settled as efficiently as possible in order to minimize settlement waiting times. Specific attention should also be given to the security of the private key store and overall architecture of the design, taking into account the threats that arise from storing key data online in hot wallet scenarios.

The application operates anonymously, requiring no personal information or user sign up, and runs over an encrypted connection. This provides a way for users to concretely prove and verify their bets. This prevents the betting exchange from being able to incorrectly settle any bet without consequence.

This check is constructed using the proof of bet and outcome systems listed above in combination with the public transaction information embedded in the Blockchain. The key store performs these actions without ever exposing the private keys to the betting exchange or to the outside world. This means that under a threat model where an adversary has control over the web application, the private keys and funds for the exchange still remain intact. In this thesis we present the Bitcoin Betting Exchange, a publicly auditable, anonymous and fully automatic betting exchange that operates on the Bitcoin network.

In this chapter we provide the background required to understand betting in a digital currency environment. We begin, first, by providing a general introduction to digital and virtual currencies and continue thereafter by exploring the technical aspects required to understanding Bitcoin.

We then provide a brief introduction to online betting and gambling and describe the background associated with sportsbooks and betting exchanges. We conclude finally by discussing the existing solutions and related work in this area. Over the past 25 years the Internet has given rise to countless virtual and digital currencies.

From E-gold [69], a digital currency founded in that was backed by gold, to Beenz [38], a virtual currency that was tradable for goods in online marketplaces, electronic currencies have taken root in the freedom and openness that the Internet provides. Today, there are over 80 [79] different digital and virtual currencies available online.

Each currency with its own unique design and purpose. In order for us to identify and analyse the different currencies it is important to define exactly what we mean when we use the terms digital and virtual currencies.

First and foremost, digital currencies are currencies that exist only in a digital, binary format. All transactions occur in the digital realm, and these currencies are never physical embodied. Meaning, all money is created and stored electronically. The primary difference therefore, between digital and physical currencies are that digital currencies are never physically produced.

You cannot hold them in your hand or put them in your pocket. E-gold for instance is a digital currency. It exists only in an electronic form. The British Pound however is a physical currency. It can actually be held in your hand. Be that what it may, physical currencies can be held in your hand, digital currencies cannot.

What then is a virtual currency? A virtual currency is a type of digital currency. It exists primarily in a virtual world. An example of this might be gold coins in the massive multiplayer, online role-playing game World of Warcraft. These currencies are limited to the virtual worlds in which they exist. As such, Bitcoin is often incorrectly referred to as a virtual currency. In fact, the primary motivation for Bitcoin is to provide a currency that can be used and traded in the real world, such as to exchange for U.

S Dollars, or to purchase a cup of coffee. Bitcoin is therefore a digital currency. More specifically it is a digital cryptocurrency, a currency built using cryptography as an implementation for managing transactions and generating new coins. With so many of these different digital currencies available, why choose to pay particular attention to Bitcoin?

Well up until the time it was first proposed, in , every digital currency was built using a single, centralized clearinghouse, or authority. This authority was responsible for managing account balances and money transfers, similarly to how a bank operates. The problem with this design was that it introduced a single point of failure. If the authority was attacked or shut down, the currency immediately became worthless. This was a fundamental problem for the majority of currencies, and as a result, many of them collapsed due to targeting by concerned governments, cyber-criminals, legislative action or liquidation of their parent company.

In however, all this changed. Released under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, the paper described the worlds first decentralized digital currency. By making use of a distributed peer to peer network and a public transaction ledger, the paper resulted in the worlds first decentralized crypto-currency, the first digital currency to provide a solution to the central authority problem.

It replaced the single centralized authority with a distributed network of many authorities and provided a way to achieve consensus among them. In doing this, there was no longer a single point of failure. In order for an attacker to render the currency worthless it would now need to corrupt at least a majority of the distributed network.

Something that is incredibly unlikely when you consider that the number of active authorities in the Bitcoin network is in the order of 10s of thousands [88]. Over the past 7 years, Bitcoin has rapidly gained popularity and widespread acceptance. To date there have been over 60 million transactions [26] in the Bitcoin network, resulting in an estimated total market capitalization of 3.

S dollars [25]. But, despite its immediate purpose, Bitcoin has also become the source of innovation for several different reasons. Its open-source nature and unique implementation features, such as the Blockchain, make it highly attractive to extension.

This is true not only for the development of customized alternate currencies, such as Bytecoin [31] and Litecoin [73], but also for completely different applications altogether, such as smart contracts, proof of existence and entirely new technology protocols, often referred to as Bitcoin 2. As previously mentioned Bitcoin is a digital cryptocurrency.

This means that at its heart it uses cryptography for transaction validation, managing security and ensuring mathematically fair generation and distribution of new coins. Cryptography is the study of techniques to allow secure and secret communication between parties, and is a branch of mathematics and computer science.

In order to understand how Bitcoin works, it is important to clarify exactly how an amount of money is represented in Bitcoin. With traditional fiat currencies, such as the British Pound for example, an amount of money is represented by the summation of physical notes and coins.

This is not so with Bitcoin. Rather than have some representation of a coin, or a note, Bitcoin uses a transaction ledger, a long chain of transactions effectively proving the derivation of any Bitcoin amount. This means that if I wanted to show you that I had Bitcoins BTC for short I would instead show you all the transactions of amounts sent me to, to prove to you how I got it.

All combining to make BTC. Of course, in order for you to verify that my dad could actually send me 50 BTC, you would need to verify that he had that amount of BTC in the first place. So you would also need to see the transactions making up his 50 BTCs. He would need to show you the transactions sent to him to make up this amount, and you would repeat this process all the way down the transaction chain, until you reached the bottom of the chain.

The bottom of the chain might be where some sort of trusted authority issued the money such as the government , or it may be a proof of how the money was initially generated. Although this may seem strange at first, it is effectively what banks and many other companies have to do internally to keep track of finances. The transactions are used as a means for protecting against this and allowing financial auditing to take place. Figure 1 represents diagrammatically how this might work.

Figure 1: Transaction to Transaction Payments [20] Note that the diagram uses several phrases that may appear confusing at first. The term satoshi in the diagram is the smallest fraction of Bitcoin that can be spent. Likewise, TX in the diagram stands for transaction and UTXO stands for unspent transaction output, an amount of money that has yet to be spent by another transaction.

In the diagram we have 7 different transactions represented as 7 large boxes. Each is labelled TX 0 to TX 6. As mentioned above, in order to spend an amount of money, you need to prove that you own that amount by providing a set of transactions that together sum to atleast the amount that you want to spend. Therefore, in the diagram every transaction has a set of input transactions.

The total spend output of TX 6 is 20k, or 20, satoshi, which is less than the total input of TX 6, which is 30, satoshi. In a similar manner, transactions can have multiple outputs. For instance if you want to split some amount of money between different accounts.

This is what TX 0 does. It pays 40k, or 40, satoshi, to one account, and 50k, 50, satoshi, to another account. This is also useful for generating change from a transaction. You may have noticed in the diagram that the sum of the inputs is 10k greater than the sum of the outputs, such as TX 4 for example, where we have a single input of 20k, but only a single output of 10k.

The 10k difference between these amounts in the example is referred to as the transaction fee. This fee is paid to the Bitcoin network in order that the transaction would be validated by the network. This may seem confusing at the moment, however, it will make more sense when we examine the processes involved with broadcasting these transactions later on. The Bitcoin network uses a global, public transaction ledger, similar to the diagram, to store every transaction that has ever been made on the network.

This ledger is publicly available and a copy of it is held by every participant, or authority in the network. Whenever any transaction takes place on the network, for example Alice sending 1 BTC to Bob, that transaction is broadcast on the entire network and every participant updates its copy of the ledger. This is why Bitcoin is referred to as a decentralized currency, as each participant effectively acts as a single authority. Alice sent Bob 1 BTC. How then can Bitcoin be anonymous? These keys are elements of public key cryptography, an area of cryptography that uses practically irreversible functions to encrypt secret messages and create digital signatures.

A public key is simply a long alphanumeric string of characters, with a related private key, together making a key-pair. The idea is that a public key can be shared and seen by everyone, but the corresponding private key is kept secret. It is this private key that allows the holder of the key-pair to identify itself, through the use of a digital signature. Because these keys are nothing more than alphanumeric characters, nobody can identify Alice or Bob from their public keys.

So although you can see a transaction from 1 public key to another, you have no idea who owns those keys. This is similar to if you intercepted an email sent to an address 2D4nfDD email. The way that a Bitcoin bank account is therefore represented in the network is as a private-public key-pair. Just like a password, whoever has access to the private key has access to the funds in the account, and can make payments to other accounts via their public keys.

The relationships between these key-pairs is what makes them interesting, i. Meaning that even though your public key can be seen by everyone it is practically infeasible for them to try to derive your private key from it. Therefore, by sending money between public keys, the identities of the people who own those keys are kept secret.

Going back to our example where Alice sends 1 BTC to Bob, one might ask exactly how new transactions are added to the transaction ledger. Each participant or node in the network stores the transaction ledger as a linked chain of blocks, called the Bitcoin Blockchain. Each block in the chain stores a set of transactions that have been validated. When a new block is added to the chain at any node, that block is broadcast to all other nodes in the network, who in turn check its validity and then update their own chain with that new block.

In order for any node to add a new block to the blockchain, a large amount of computation or work needs to be performed. This computation is required to prove the validity of the transactions in the block. The key element here is that it requires considerable computation for any node to prove a block, but once that block has been proved, it is fairly easy for any other node to check that proof.

The process of adding a new block to the blockchain is called mining. The easiest way to think about it is to picture this process as a game. Every node in the network has a replicated copy of the transaction ledger, stored as a blockchain. As time passes by, new transactions are broadcast to the nodes in the network, such as when Alice sends some money to Bob, or Bob sends some money to Eve.

As all of these transactions occur, each of the nodes in the network is competing against each other to try to find a solution to a specific problem that will allow them to generate a new block. Whichever node finds the solution first broadcasts it to. The node who found the solution first is declared the winner and the game repeats with the next set of transactions that occur. Because the solution is difficult to find and requires a large amount of computation, why would these nodes spend their time trying to solve it?

Well just like a game, the winner receives a prize. In this case, whoever solves the problem first is paid two separate amounts of Bitcoin. The first amount is the sum of all the transaction fees of the transactions included in the new block. These fees are the differences between the inputs of a transaction, and the outputs. For example the missing 10, satoshis for each transaction that we identified in figure 1.

These fees will act as an incentive for the miners and because the miner can choose which transactions to include in the new block, it will naturally choose the transactions paying the highest transaction fees. The second amount of money the winning miner receives is a pre-defined amount of new bitcoin. Just like when a central bank prints new coins and notes, the Bitcoin network creates new bitcoins whenever a block is added to the blockchain.

The amount created for each new block depends on the number of blocks in the blockchain. At present this amount is 25 BTC, but it halves every , blocks. By halving the amount of newly generated bitcoins at these intervals, it introduces a fundamental limit in the total number of bitcoins that will ever be produced, a limit of around 21 million bitcoins []. This imposed limit therefore makes Bitcoin a deflationary currency. The process of mining can therefore be considered a game of rounds, where at each round a new block is generated, validating a set of transactions and rewarding the winner.

Because of the competitive nature of this game, you might try to think of ways of beating it, or increasing your chances of winning. One way might be to try and throw more and more computing power at the problem. This is where the ingenuity of the Bitcoin network begins to reveal itself. The difficulty of the challenge to solve for each block is dynamic and continuously adapts to the power of the miners. The network tries to keep the difficulty of the problem at a level that limits the generation of new blocks to around 1 every 10 minutes.

This allows it to control the rate of generation of new coins and the growth of the blockchain. It does this by monitoring the speed at which new blocks are generated and every blocks either increases or decreases the difficulty depending on how the miners coped []. The challenge that the miners need to solve in order to generate a new block is to repeatedly hash the header of the potential block with a random number until the generated answer is less than or equal to some target shared by the network [].

Hashing is a cryptographic 1 way function that is designed to be irreversible. The idea is to take some input, a string or a message, and apply some function to that input in order to generate a fixed length output string or hash. The function is designed in such a way that you cannot derive the original message or input from the output hash.

The hashing algorithm used by the bitcoin network is SHA, an algorithm that given any length input string produces a hash of length characters. The network can vary the difficulty of the challenge by increasing or decreasing the network target. One great property of this challenge is that, arguably, there is no pre-defined method for selecting which random number to use when hashing the head of the block and so finding a solution to the problem is considered luck.

Therefore the only real approach to solving the challenge is to repeatedly calculate a new hash each time, brute forcing the possible inputs, until you get lucky. At the current time, it is estimated that the combined power of the network, measured in hashes computed per second, is around 3. This illustrates just how powerful the network has grown to become. Figure 2 shows the networks combined power in billions of hashes per second, called the hash-rate, plotted against time for the past 2 years.

From this graph we can see that the hash-rate of the combined Bitcoin network has nearly quadrupled in the past 6 months. Figure 2: The combined power of the Bitcoin network measured in hashes per second [24] When we consider the nature of the challenge that miners are required to solve in order to mine a block, we see that the challenge to solve is also ideal when we look at the required number of transactions per block.

As the network enforces no minimum or maximum number of required transactions per mined block, just some spatial requirements, one might think that the challenge would be easier to solve with fewer transactions in the block.

This however is not the case. As mentioned above, the challenge is to hash the block header with some random number. Due to the way in which the block header is derived, through the use of a structure called a merkel tree, the difficulty of the problem does not depend on the number of transactions per block.

Because of this, it would make sense for miners to want to include as many transactions per block as possible, because of the additional transaction fees at no increased difficulty. Likewise, during its infancy, when there were not that many transactions occuring regularly on the network, the ability to mine blocks without needing transactions was an incentive for miners to invest their computation power in order to keep the network running.

With the public transaction ledger replicated across every node in the network, one might ask what happens in the case that two nodes disagree. For example, if two nodes successfully mine different blocks at exactly the same time and broadcast them across the network.

In order to answer that it is necessary to understand exactly how the chain is built and what we mean we say two blocks are chained together. As mentioned in the previous section, in order to solve a block, a miner needs to solve the challenge of finding an appropriate hash for the header of a block. The header of a block is dependent on the transactions in the block, via a merkel tree, as well as on the hash of the header of the previous block. To illustrate this point take a look at figure 3.

Figure 3: Block chaining [19] In this diagram we can see three block headers represented by big boxes labelled Block 1 Header, Block 2 Header and Block 3 Header. These block headers correspond to blocks in the blockchain. If we look at the Block 2 Header, we can see that it depends on the hash of the Block 1 Header, i. It also depends on the root of the merkel tree representing the transactions in block 2.

This structure is identical for all the blocks in the block chain right down to the beginning of the chain where the very first block was created, called the genesis block. The way in which these blocks are chained together has some important and surprising implications. The first of which is that the solution to each block relies on the solution to the previous block, meaning that it is impossible to attempt to solve blocks out of order, i.

This requirement enforces the sequential generation of blocks. The implications of sequential block generation are actually very strong. We know that the time taken on average to solve a single block is around 10 minutes, it therefore means that the longer the block chain, the more time and computational resource that has been invested into it. For example, imagine if someone was trying to attack the blockchain shown in figure 3.

What they wanted to do was remove the details of a single transaction from block 1, i. If they applied this change, they would need to update the merkel root in the block, as the merkel tree is calculated based upon the transactions in the block.

Likewise, because that would change the contents of the first block header itself, they would need to re-solve the challenge issued by the network, as the output hash would change because the input block header changed. This would change the solution of the first block. Now because the solution to the second block in the chain depends on the solution of the first block, the solution to the second block would also need to be recalculated, thereby affecting the solution to the third block, and so on.

This cascade causes every single block after the modified block to change. This is a powerful property, because it means that if you insert a piece of information into a block in the blockchain, as you add subsequent blocks to that chain, you increase the amount of work that would need to be done in order for someone to corrupt that piece of information i.

This feature is often called proof of work and is the way in which the network generates trust. We will revisit this property later. This mechanism can also be used to solve disputes among nodes and achieve consensus as to the. If we go back to the question raised earlier about what might happen if two nodes were to disagree, we can see how this comes into play. For instance, imagine that two nodes find a solution to the challenge for the next block at the same time.

These nodes then broadcast their solutions to the rest of the network. Who should the network side with? This problem is often referred to as blockchain forking. Figure 4 illustrates the problem. We have two valid solutions to the next block after Block 2, Block 3. Both of these solutions were found at the same time and are valid. Figure 4: Block forking What will happen is the two chains will develop side by side simultaneously.

Each node will keep a copy of both chains until one of the chains becomes longer than the other, at which point the longer chain will be accepted as the real one, and the smaller chain will be discarded or orphaned. Why will the network select the longer chain as the correct one? As discussed, the longer the chain, the more time and computational resource invested into it, meaning a greater proof of work, and hence more trust.

Furthermore, this property also protects the entire network from corruption. If an attacker wanted to create its own fake chain fork and trick the network into accepting it, this chain would have to be longer than the current one. As such, the attacker would need to have more computational power than the entire network combined to grow its own chain faster than the one produced by the network.

This is extremely unlikely considering the size of the network and it has been argued that if profit was the main focus of the attacker, they would actually gain more to follow the rules than to attack it []. A double spend attack is when an attacker is effectively able to spend the same transaction twice. It is best illustrated with an example. Imagine Alice wants to buy a cup of coffee from Bob using bitcoin. When she pays Bob, she broadcasts a transaction on the network that sends some amount of BTC to the address that Bob requested.

Bob sees that the transaction has been broadcast, makes Alice her cup of coffee and Alice leaves the shop. Note that even though Bob saw the transaction was broadcast, this transaction was unconfirmed, meaning that it had yet to be added to a new block in the blockchain by a miner. The problem with this is that, if Alice was able to mine blocks more quickly than the rest of the network, she could immediately create a different transaction, sending the amount of money she sent to Bob back to herself, or to someone else.

She would then add that transaction to a new block, broadcast the solution, and everyone would add that block to their chains. However, when the transaction that Alice originally sent to Bob was to be verified and added into a new block, the network would see that the transactions referenced as input to that payment had already been spent in the block that Alice just recently added.

What went wrong? The problem with this situation is a result of the way in which the network solves disagreement. It effectively says that the longest chain, or the chain with the highest proof of work is correct. If Alice has the ability to mine a block before the rest of the network, she could spend the transactions referenced in the payment she sent to Bob before the payment is confirmed.

Theoretically there is no strict limit as to when it becomes impossible for Alice to generate a longer chain. There are however practical limits and trade-offs. The practical cost of having a majority of network power completely dwarfs the costs saved by stealing a cup of coffee. The story changes however, if instead of Alice purchasing a cup of coffee from Bob, she buys a new Ferrari.

Now the cost trade-off is different, and it would be wise for Bob to wait some amount of time for new blocks to be added to the chain, re-confirming the transaction. A natural question to ask is how long should he wait in this case? Although there is no concrete answer it has been recommended that waiting for 6 block confirmations or 5 new blocks on-top of the particular transaction block.

With around 1 block being mined every 10 minutes, this would require a wait time of 1 hour, which is more than reasonable considering that banks may take more than 24 hours for a payment to be processed. In fact, the double spend attack is only one particular example under a class of attacks called consensus attacks. Up until now, whenever we have referred to a Bitcoin transaction we have assumed a construct that sends money from one public key to another.

In reality this is only one type of transaction supported by the network and for the sake of the Alice-Bob example is a simplification of the protocol. The Bitcoin network can actually support several different and more complicated types of transactions, allowing much more than direct money transfers from one person to another.

The first thing we need to understand in order to visualise this is the notion of a bitcoin address. A bitcoin address, like a public key is a string of alphanumeric characters that can be publicly distributed to allow the transfer of funds. This type of transaction is typically referred to as a Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash or P2PKH for short, as the amount in the transaction is being paid directly to the hash of the public key.

As discussed earlier, in order to display ownership of a public key, it is sufficient to sign something with the corresponding private key. Whenever a transaction is being validated for use in a new block, the mining node will execute what is a called a script, or a sequence of instructions, in order to check that the inputs of any transaction can actually be spent. In order to do this, the mining node executes two scripts, the locking script, and the unlocking script.

The locking script is a form of lock placed on the outputs of any transaction. In order for someone to spend those transactions i. Likewise, an unlocking script is a script placed on the inputs of a transaction. These scripts are run in order to unlock the locking scripts placed on these inputs by the previous transactions. The easiest way to think about it is like a puzzle. In order to spend any transaction, you need to solve the puzzle placed on the transaction by that transactions locking script.

When you have found a solution to the puzzle you enter it by writing the steps in the unlocking script. This is so that when the transactions are being validated by a mining node, these scripts when executed together will solve the puzzle and at the end of the execution will allow the amount to be spent.

Successfully unlocking the script occurs when after execution of both scripts together, the result is 1, representing TRUE. The script language that is used by Bitcoin is a very simple stack-based language. It was deliberately designed not to be Turing complete, meaning that not every program can be represented or built using it. The reason for this is to protect the network from potential attacks such as infinite loops or denial of service, by using very long, complex programs in an attempt to slow the network down.

To provide concrete script examples, imagine Alice constructs a transaction with a locking script that simply returns 1 or TRUE always. In this case, anybody can spend the transaction because the answer to the puzzle is trivial, an empty unlocking script will do, because when executed together the result will be 1 and thus the transaction will be valid.

Likewise Alice could also construct a transaction with a locking script that simply returns 0 in all cases. This transaction will be provably unspendable, because regardless of any unlocking script, there is no way that the combined scripts can result in TRUE. A more common example is that of a Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash transaction. An illustration of this transaction script can be seen in figure 5 below.

This new transaction will need to unlock the locking script that Alice placed on her payment. In order to do this Bob generates an unlocking script that he thinks will do the job. When a mining node attempts to verify the new transction that Bob has made, it will execute the scripts together from left to right. This verification will succeed, and a resultant 1 will be pushed onto the Now that the script has finished being executed, the mining node will pop the top value of the stack, in this case the 1 we just pushed, and check if the final result is TRUE.

This will succeed as 1 and TRUE are the same, and therefore the mining node will accept the transaction as valid. Figure 5: Bitcoin Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash Script At present, the developers of Bitcoin have limited the types of supported transactions on the network to 5 specific constructs. Although this may only be a temporary limitation, these supported constructs are referred to as standard transactions and are currently supported by all mining nodes in the network.

Although the other script types are technically unsupported, there are mining nodes who will take these scripts to be valid when generating new blocks. At the current time however, these transactions are under no guarantee to be mined. And as such, we will only discuss the 5 supported types below.

As we have previously seen, the Pay-To-Public-Key-Hash transaction type allows a payment to occur from one party to the public key hash of another. In order for that transaction to be spent by the receiving party, they need to provide a signature using the corresponding private key from the key-pair.

Likewise, a Pay-To-Public-Key transaction allows the transfer of funds from one party directly to the public key of another. This is effectively a simpler form of the Pay-To-Public-KeyHash transaction and is more commonly associated with older mining nodes. This is because it requires more space to store a public key than a hash of that key.

Similarly, a Multi-Signature transaction is one that requires multiple signatures in order for the transaction to be spent. For example, requiring 2 out of 3 signatures in order to release the funds. These types of transactions support M of N schemes, for example, to provide redundancy and additional security features such as forms of escrow. The Pay-To-Script-Hash transaction type was developed to allow a payment to be sent to the hash of a script.

Although this construct seems strange at first, the motivation behind it was to allow the complexity of implementing scripts to be moved away from the party creating the transaction to the one wanting to spend it. For example, imagine that a company implements some type of internal security features to prevent its employees from running away with its money.

These security features are implemented as a complex script that they require all customers to attach to their transactions. Instead, by using a Pay-To-Script-Hash transaction type the company can be responsible for implementing those scripts, and the customers can pay to the bitcoin addresses provided by the company, hiding these complexities. This data can be used to store any type of additional information associated with a transaction.

As mentioned in the Blockchain section above, one of the great properties of the Bitcoin blockchain is the ability to protect data in the chain from corruption, through proof of work. This has some interesting consequences and as a result, people have come up with ingenious and novel ways of using this transaction type to create a whole host of unique and unrelated applications.

Examples include smart contracts, proof of existence and certification. As you increase the number of blocks on the chain, you increase the amount of work required to undo the blocks. This effectively adds more and more trust to the existence of the piece of information stored in a transaction. As these novel applications have gained popularity among users, concerns have been raised about the amount of unnecessary information that the blockchain is currently storing.

It has been argued that adding data to the blockchain that is unrelated to Bitcoin bloats the chain, making it bigger for no reason. Because the entire blockchain has to be replicated at every node in the network you effectively waste large amounts of space of many different nodes. However, decentralized replication and proof of work actually make the blockchain perfect for embedding information without worry of loss or corruption, and as such users have argued that these applications will only ever promote the use of Bitcoin as a currency.

One of which was to take some piece of information, hash it to a fixed length and use the hash as the destination address of a new transaction. This had two implications. The first of which was that, because the destination address of the transaction does not correspond to any real bitcoin address, these transactions can never be spent, meaning that the amount of bitcoin provided as inputs to the transaction are forever lost, decreasing the total amount of bitcoin available globally.

The second implication was that, because mining nodes store unspent transactions in main memory in order to allow efficient generation of new blocks, these types of transactions will too be stored in memory. However, because they can never be spent, they will exist forever in main-memory, effectively requiring miners to continuously increase the size of their RAM in order to continue operating. By making the transaction provably unspendable through the transaction script, the miners will be able to identify these transactions and will not store them in main-memory.

The embedded data however will still exist forever in the block chain. A Bitcoin wallet is a storage container that stores the access information for Bitcoin accounts. As previously mentioned, a Bitcoin account is a private-public key-pair and in order for someone to spend the funds in an account, they must have the correct private key to unlock those funds. All a wallet therefore needs to do is store a set of private keys as public keys are easily derivable from a private keys. A question one might naturally ask is why then would someone want more than 1 account, or 1 private-public key-pair?

Typically the reason for this is anonymity. To protect against this it is common practice for people to use a new account or key-pair for every transaction that they perform. This makes. Although this might seem wasteful, as you effectively create a new account for every transaction, the length of a private key is bits long.

This means that there are different bitcoin accounts. This number is equivalent to around and is so sufficiently large that running out of addresses should not be a concern. Furthermore, it also means that the chance of any two people generating the same private-public key-pair is nearly impossible, assuming that the generation of key pairs is randomly and evenly distributed. Note that this may not be the case for incorrect or insecure implementations of account generators.

A Bitcoin wallet is therefore simply a private key store. It can be in the form of a hard drive, a CD, an application on your mobile phone or even a piece of paper that you keep in a safe. Anything that can store data can act as a Bitcoin wallet. Arguably, the biggest problem with wallets today is that if you lose your wallet, or the keys are removed, you permanently lose access to the money in those accounts. In fact over the past couple years there have been several unfortunate cases where people have lost their private keys and hence forfeited large amounts of bitcoin.

Likewise, because keys are regularly being generated for new transactions, wallets also need to be backed up on a regular basis to prevent data loss. To protect against these problems there have been several developments in wallet technology over the past few years. These technologies range from software based wallets, such as seeded hierarchical deterministic wallets, to hardware based wallets, such as Bitcoin Trezor [].

Each type of wallet has its own unique advantages and design purpose. Software based seeded wallets for instance, only need to be backed up once because the generation of new keys is deterministic upon some seed. Hardware based wallets on the other hand are designed to protect from viruses, cyber-attacks and malware. For example, figure 6 shows Bitcoin Trezor, a type of hardware based wallet.

This wallet is designed to prevent private key theft. It does so by never exposing the private keys stored in the wallet when transactions are signed. This means that regardless of how insecure the computer is that is being used to generate the transactions, the private keys will not be made vulnerable.

This type of offline Bitcoin storage is often referred to as cold storage. A year after the initial Bitcoin whitepaper was released, a reference implementation [18] was published online by Nakamoto. This implementation was released under an open-source license, allowing the bitcoin community to verify its correctness and contribute to the project.

Since then, the implementation has been revised and updated by many different bitcoin developers and enthusiasts worldwide. In Nakamoto withdrew from the community, leaving the primary control of development to a group of community volunteers. By open-sourcing the project, Nakamoto also gave individuals the ability to fork the reference implementation and create their own digital currency based on its design.

This decision has resulted in the release of hundreds of different online alternative currencies. Each currency providing some unique spin or variant on the original Bitcoin implementation. These alternative currencies are often referred to as altcoins and usually differ from Bitcoin through some small alterations. For example some modify the total number of coins that will be released over the currencies lifetime while others modify the speed at which blocks can be generated or the proof of work algorithm used to generate those blocks.

Although many of these coins are based on bitcoin, some do not re-use any of its code and instead borrow the principles and ideas behind the currency. Nonetheless it is still common for these currencies to be called altcoins.

For example, one of the very first altcoins, Litecoin [73], was released in Litecoin is the second most successful digital currency, second only to Bitcoin itself. The primary differences between Bitcoin and Litecoin are that Litecoin has an average block mining time of 2. The change in the proof of work algorithm used by Litecoin means that the network is more resistant to rapidly accelerating hardware as the algorithm is very memory intensive and much more serialised than SHA used by Bitcoin.

They are not quickly outdone by specialised harware rigs, such as application specific integrated circuits, or ASICs. Furthermore, the increase in the speed of block mining means that the network can cope with transactions much more quickly, providing confirmations much earlier. Another intersting example of an altcoin is Curecoin [43] that was released in Curecoin provides an interesting innovation on the foundation already set by Bitcoin.

The idea is to replace the wasted computation in the Bitcoin network with computation that would help medical research at the same time. Curecoin has a current block generation time of 10 minutes, and an unlimited currency generation. As well as innovation in proof of work mechanisms, there have also been several alternate currencies based on improving the anonymity of Bitcoin transactions. One such currency is Bytecoin [31], a currency launched in based on the CryptoNote [42] reference implementation.

The idea behind CryptoNote and Bytecoin was to use ring signatures, a mechanism where transactions between parties are signed by multiple individuals. The idea is that the verifier of the transaction cannot distinguish the direct paticipants from the rest of the signing group. This makes blockchain analysis and transaction tracking much more difficult and thus increases the anonymity of the network.

Figure 7 shows the different logos for each of the digital currencies mentioned above. These logos are for Bitcoin, Litecoin, Curecoin and Bytecoin respectively. Figure 7: Logos of Various Digital Currencies In addition to altcoin technology, the open-source nature of Bitcoin has also driven development in altchain technologies.

These type of developments innovate on the block chaining algorithm used inside Bitcoin in order to achieve consensus on a variety of different problems. For instance, providing a decentralized DNS registrar, resource distribution and contract generation. One concrete example of an altchain is Bitmessage [22].

Bitmessage is a distributed secure messaging service. It uses a block chaining algorithm to provide peer-to-peer and trust-less communication where the parties involved are kept anonymous and their messages hidden through encryption. Bitmessage circumvents the single point of failure associated with email servers, making denial of service attacks, eavesdropping and message observation much more difficult.

Furthermore messages are not persistent, they only live for a certain period of time before they disappear from the chain. Just like alternative currencies and chains Bitcoin has also inspired the development of many different metacoins and metachains.

These innovations build software layers and protocols directly on top of the Bitcoin blockchain, allowing them to support many different applications such as currencies inside currencies, or the creation of much more powerful protocols. These types of innovation are much more widely referred to as Bitcoin 2.

One such example of a metacoin is Mastercoin [76]. The idea of Mastercoin is to provide a framework and a set of tools that can be used to develop new applications. One example is supporting the creation of new user currencies where individuals can build their own customised currencies without needing to do any software development. Mastercoin uses a special Bitcoin address, called the Exodus address, to embed data into the blockchain.

This allows it to differentiate normal transactions in the network from Mastercoin specific ones. Mastercoin uses its own currency MST as a token for building Mastercoin transactions. The distribution of MST was based on early payments to the Exodus address, allowing users to effectively trade Bitcoin for Mastercoin. Another example of a Bitcoin 2. Ethereum models its blockchain as a state transition system and uses it to act as an abstraction layer for a Turingcomplete programming language.

This would allow anyone to write decentralized applications and smart contracts in a very simple way, often reducing the complexity of many existing altchains to. Ethereum uses an internal currrency called Ether to drive the protocol. Finally, Counterparty [41] is another Bitcoin innovation that builds a protocol layer on top of a blockchain. Counterparty provides peer-to-peer financial tools and a platform on which to create smart contracts, perform asset exchange and generate custom tokens.

Counterparty is actually a port of Ethereums open-source reference implementation. Instead of using a new custom block chain to build upon, Counterparty uses the Bitcoin blockchain as its foundation, arguing that there is no need to create a new blockchain as suggested by Ethereum. In contrast to how Mastercoin and Ethereum distributes their tokens, Counterparty uses a proof-of-burn [] scheme where miners show that they have burnt an amount of Bitcoin in order to recieve XCP.

Burning Bitcoin effectively means sending an amount of Bitcoin to an unspendable address. This act effectively bootstraps value, demonstrating a belief that by burning something valuable, you believe the purpose of that burn to have value too, i. In doing this, XCP is given value through the lost Bitcoin. Figure 8 shows the different logos for each of the three Bitcoin 2.

These logos are for Mastercoin, Ethereum and Counterparty respectively. In addition to virtual and digital currencies, the Internet has also given birth to the global online gambling and betting marketplace. With the rapid expansion of the World Wide Web, the worlds first online casino, InterCasino, was opened in [68].

It was the first casino to offer online betting and wagering in fiat currency, making use of the Internet as an open, wide-spread and instantly accessible medium. Online betting and gambling has since grown rapidly. So much so that, in it was estimated to be worth in excess of 2 billion pounds in the U. K alone [36]. Despite the border-less nature and freedom of the Internet, online betting is a very highly regulated and complex sector.

Different countries around the world hold different laws regarding online betting. Unsurprisingly, each country also has its own unique definition to describe exactly what constitutes betting. For example, in the United States it is against federal law for websites to take sports bets over the Internet. In South Korea however, any type of gambling or betting is illegal, regardless of whether or not it occurs online.

This is true in all cases except if the person placing the bet is a tourist, not of Korean, Vietnamese or Nepalese citizenship. In the United Kingdom, gambling is legal both online and off, provided the participants are over 18 years of age. Unfortunately, things become even more complicated when gambling occurs online across several different jurisdictions. For example, an American citizen in Texas placing a bet on a sports website registered in the U. K, on a server running in France.

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Dwarves share a global storage called the nexus that any dwarf can access. This is where teamwork comes in play, for instance if your class is a blacksmith you can make all sorts of armor and weapons and place them in the nexus for your team mates to receive.

Any class can place blocks down and contribute to building the ultimate fortress. The Camping Rusher shows in this video just how complex and fun Dwarves vs Zombies is. After 20 minutes of the round starting, If a dwarf dies they then become 1 out of 10 monsters. When a player becomes a monster they gain access to multiple spells to cast to give them a distinct advantage over a dwarf. For instance if a player gets spawned as a chicken they can fly around the map and shoot dwarves to kill them.

The main objective of the monsters is to destroy the shrine located in the dwarves base. However if the dwarves kill about monsters before the shrine is destroyed the dwarves win the game. When the round starts a shrine is automatically generated on the map. The dwarves can build within about 50 blocks of the shrine and there are certain limitations to how close around the shrine a dwarf can place blocks.

The dwarves will have one Minecraft day to prepare for the invasion. The ultimate goal of the dwarves is to defend their shrines from the oncoming hordes - however, they will inevitably fall. The hordes of monsters are endless, and the dwarves are few. Additionally, dwarves cannot respawn - once a dwarf is dead, he or she becomes a monster. As night falls, roughly twenty percent of the dwarves will be randomly selected to die to a plague.

The goal of the monsters is to destroy all the dwarven shrines. It is very difficult for most monsters to fight a dwarf in single combat - monsters must rely on numbers to overwhelm and destroy the dwarves. As more dwarves are killed, the ranks of the monsters will grow and the dwarves will be forced to retreat. Eventually, the monsters will overwhelm the first shrine, which will move their spawn up to that point, forcing the dwarves to retreat to the next shrine.

This process repeats until the final shrine is reached, where the dwarves must fight to the end to defend their shrine. The game ends when all the dwarves are dead or all the dwarven shrines have been destroyed. Remember , it is impossible for dwarves to win. The only goal for the dwarves is to protect their shrines as long as possible and kill as many monsters as they can.

Marking the end of an era and the ending of one of the greatest minecraft legacies of all time. Rest in peace DvZ may you never be forgotten. Secondary Rotation. Game Master Mode Maps. This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Official Server. Powerful Rampage, Of Course P. Go to Powerful Rampage, of Course.

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